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5.0: Introduction - Biology

5.0: Introduction - Biology


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In which we drastically change gears and move from evolutionary mechanisms to the physicochemical properties of organisms. We consider how molecules interact and react with one another and how these interactions and reactions determine the properties of substances and systems.


5.0: Introduction - Biology

For this assessment you will conduct a kitchen science experiment in which you study the movement of materials into and out of cells. Individual cells are generally too small to see however, a chicken egg is actually a single cell. Please note that on the whole this lab will take you 3 days to complete. However, there is less than 1 hour of ‘hands-on’ work on the first and last days.

Use the Membrane Lab procedure for your experimental set up.

When complete, write a lab report in MLA format that includes the following sections.

  • Introduction
  • Hypotheses
  • Materials and Methods
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Conclusion
  • References

Use this example to give you an idea of how your experiment may look in progress, and to help with completing your lab report.

Basic Requirements (the assignment will not be accepted or assessed unless the follow criteria have been met):


Biology

Biology is designed for multi-semester biology courses for science majors. It is grounded on an evolutionary basis and includes exciting features that highlight careers in the biological sciences and everyday applications of the concepts at hand.

To meet the needs of today’s instructors and students, some content has been strategically condensed while maintaining the overall scope and coverage of traditional texts for this course. Instructors can customize the book, adapting it to the approach that works best in their classroom.

Biology also includes an innovative art program that incorporates critical thinking and clicker questions to help students understand—and apply—key concepts.

Features:
- Study progress
- Quiz progress
- 8 Study units
- 256 Lessons
- 47 Quizzes
- 676 Practice questions
- 440 Flashcards
- 2350 Glossaries

Unit 1: The Chemistry of Life. Our opening unit introduces students to the sciences, including the scientific method and the fundamental concepts of chemistry and physics that provide a framework within which learners comprehend biological processes.

Unit 2: The Cell. Students will gain solid understanding of the structures, functions, and processes of the most basic unit of life: the cell.

Unit 3: Genetics. Our comprehensive genetics unit takes learners from the earliest experiments that revealed the basis of genetics through the intricacies of DNA to current applications in the emerging studies of biotechnology and genomics.

Unit 4: Evolutionary Processes. The core concepts of evolution are discussed in this unit with examples illustrating evolutionary processes. Additionally, the evolutionary basis of biology reappears throughout the textbook in general discussion and is reinforced through special call-out features highlighting specific evolution-based topics.

Unit 5: Biological Diversity. The diversity of life is explored with detailed study of various organisms and discussion of emerging phylogenetic relationships. This unit moves from viruses to living organisms like bacteria, discusses the organisms formerly grouped as protists, and devotes multiple chapters to plant and animal life.

Unit 6: Plant Structure and Function. Our plant unit thoroughly covers the fundamental knowledge of plant life essential to an introductory biology course.

Unit 7: Animal Structure and Function. An introduction to the form and function of the animal body is followed by chapters on specific body systems and processes. This unit touches on the biology of all organisms while maintaining an engaging focus on human anatomy and physiology that helps students connect to the topics.

Unit 8: Ecology. Ecological concepts are broadly covered in this unit, with features highlighting localized, real-world issues of conservation and biodiversity.


Bachelor of Science in Biology

The study of living things has room for dozens, if not hundreds, of specializations! The Marian University Bachelor of Science in Biology program prepares students for a career in healthcare, scientific industries, and academics right after graduation. Or the bachelor’s is a solid foundation for those on a track toward graduate school.

The BS in Biology produces scientists and citizens who understand the scope and perspective of modern biology. Marian alumni are consistently recognized for their leadership and cognitive ability. Through lecture, laboratory, and field work, students gain valuable experience that emphasizes real-world research and analysis. Students benefit from research courses, and work with faculty members to produce original work that prepares them for post-graduation success.

Become the scientist that shapes modern biology. Talk to an admission counselor today!

Learn About Biology in the Ridenour Science Center

Biology students have the pleasure of taking courses, conducting research, collaborating with other students, and interacting with faculty experts in our state-of-the-art facility.

The Dr. Richard and Leslie Ridenour Science Center provides an engaging environment to learn the skills most important for a career in biology.

  • Nine teaching labs
  • Three research labs
  • Three prep rooms
  • One computer lab
  • Seven classrooms
  • 18 offices
  • Two student collaboration areas

Biology - An Important Part of Other Degree Programs

The study of biology is a base for many other academic programs, such as nursing, pre-professional, and teaching. Some nursing students choose to minor in biology. Middle-secondary education students may select biology as their content area for a double major in order to teach biology to students in grades 5-12.

Students desiring “pre-professional education” to become a dentist, doctor, optometrist, pharmacist, physical therapist, or veterinarian, are advised to pursue a biology major with a chemistry minor, or a chemistry major with a biology minor.

The Biology Department supports additional options for students.

Get in on the Action

We believe the best way to learn is through practice. Biology students have the chance to…

  • Dissect a human cadaver and go beyond textbooks to gain valuable knowledge of human anatomy and physiology
  • Conduct independent research to contribute to the field
  • Develop a resume that will help ensure job placement and acceptance into quality graduate and professional programs
  • Take part in internships

Prepare for Work or Graduate School

As a biology graduate, you are setting yourself up for a solid career.

Join the workforce immediately after graduation:

  • High School Biology Teacher
  • Environmental Conservationist
  • Biological Technician
  • Researcher
  • Forensic Scientist

Continue with graduate studies to train for these careers:

  • Doctor
  • Dentist
  • Professor
  • Pharmacist
  • Veterinarian

Learn More About the Biology Program

Linda Krueger, Chair of the Math and Natural Science department, provides insight into Marian’s biology program in which students will gain analytical, communication, and transferable skills that will elevate them in their pursuits after graduation. Within the program, you will take the classroom knowledge and apply it in a laboratory setting. Additionally, you will be conducting research whether that be within the Science Center on campus or outside in fieldwork and internships.

The Marian University Bachelor of Science in Biology program curriculum aims to help students find truths from the natural world that can enhance the way we live. Students benefit from our small, dynamic lectures, which give students theoretical knowledge through extensive laboratory, research, and field work. Those in the BS in Biology program work closely with experienced and respected faculty, who are recognized leaders in the field and believe in a true mentoring relationship with their students.

General Education Courses

As a bachelor’s level student, you are required to take about 30 credits of general education courses as part of the 120 credits required for a bachelor’s degree. Gen eds are required regardless of your major.

All students take 10.5 to 17 credits in these areas:

  • Mathematical Reasoning
  • Argumentative and Research Writing
  • Introduction to Christian Theology
  • Interpersonal Communication
  • Introduction to Ethical Reasoning
  • First Year Studies

Core Courses

Biology majors will take courses covering topics such as:

  • Biological Principles
  • Cell biology
  • Microbiology
  • Chemistry
  • Ecology
  • Anatomy & physiology
  • Zoology

For a list of all degrees and courses offered at Marian University, please view the Academic Bulletin.

Other Requirements, 16 credits:

CHE 101 Principles of Chemistry I - 5.0 Credits

An introduction to the fundamental principles of Chemistry including modern concepts of atomic and molecular theory, physical states of matter, stoichiometry, chemical bonding, gas laws, equilibria and reactions of inorganic compounds.

CHE 102 Principles of Chemistry II - 5.0 Credits

Prerequisites:

A second-semester general Chemistry course which introduces the topics of equilibrium, kinetics, ionic equilibria of weak electrolytes, solubility product, coordination compounds, thermodynamics, electrochemistry and descriptive chemistry. Qualitative analysis is included in the laboratory portion of this course.

CHE 201 Organic Chemistry I - 3.0 Credits

Prerequisites:

An in-depth study of the chemistry of organic compounds. This course includes nomenclature, structure, reactions, stereochemistry, an introduction to absorption spectroscopy and uses and reaction mechanisms of organic molecules.

CHE 202 Organic Chemistry II - 3.0 Credits

Prerequisites:

A continuation of CHE 201.

CHE 251 Organic Chemistry I – Lab - 1.0 Credits

Prerequisites:

An introduction to the techniques and methods of the organic chemistry laboratory. This course includes the synthesis of various classes of compounds, determination of properties and structures, product evaluation, introduction to various instruments and identification.

CHE 252 Organic Chemistry II-Lab - 1.0 Credits

Prerequisites:

A continuation of CHE 251.

BIO 010 Biology Seminar I

Research seminars, reviews of professional biology literature, and research proposals presented by Biology majors, faculty members, and/or guest speakers.

BIO 020 Biology Seminar II

Prerequisites:

Research preparation and training in seminar and guided research formats. Research and career seminars, reviews of professional biology literature, and research proposals are presented by Biology majors and faculty, with occasional guest speakers.

BIO 101 Bio. Principles I & Lab - 4.0 Credits

A lecture-laboratory course for science majors stressing the nature of science and scientific methodology. Basic ecological concepts and human impact on the environment are studied. The chemistry of life, the cellular basis of life, genetics, energy relationships and metabolism are presented. Both the classical aspects and the areas of recent research are included. (This course is required for Biology and Biology Education majors and Biology minors.)

BIO 102 Bio. Principles II & Lab - 4.0 Credits

Prerequisites:

A continuation of BIO 101. Major topics covered include plant and animal biology. Structural and functional relationships are stressed. Major structures, adaptations, and evolution of Monera, Protista and Animal kingdoms are surveyed. Current areas of research are included. Dissection of representative organisms including the fetal pig is required.

BIO 231 Botany & Lab - 4.0 Credits

Prerequisites:

An extensive study of the plant kingdom and related organisms. Major topics include taxonomy, structure, morphology, development, physiology, reproduction and evolution of plants. Ecological awareness is encouraged.

BIO 300 Biology Literature and Seminar - 2.0 Credits

Prerequisites:

A seminar based on the reading of current biological literature and the presentation of research seminars. In addition, students will prepare and present senior research proposals for a senior research project.

BIO 301 Genetics - 3.0 Credits

Prerequisites:

Study of transmission, molecular, evolutionary, population, and quantitative genetics.

BIO 302 Cell and Molecular Biology - 3.0 Credits

Prerequisites:

Study of eukaryotic cellular and molecular biology.

BIO 311 Molecular and Physiological Microbiology - 4.0 Credits

Prerequisites:

An introduction to bacterial structure, metabolism, growth principles, genetics and identification. Other topics covered include antibiotics, bacteriophage and infectious diseases caused by bacteria. (Students may not take both BIO 210 and BIO 311 for credit.)

BIO 425 Biology Senior Research I - 1.0 Credits

Prerequisites:

The first of two courses that comprise an individually arranged research project under the guidance of department faculty. Each biology major elects to do laboratory/field research on a problem in biology of personal interest. In this course the student will refine research methods and experimental design, including data collection, and complete initial sections of the final written report.

BIO 426 Biology Senior Research II - 1.0 Credits

Prerequisites:

The second of two courses that comprise an individually arranged research project under the guidance of department faculty. Each biology major elects to do laboratory/field research on a problem in biology of personal interest. In this course the student will collect and analyze data, finish and submit a written report, and do a public presentation of his or her research.

4-8 credits from the following:

BIO 201 Anatomy & Physiology I - 4.0 Credits

Prerequisites:

An in-depth study of the structure and function of human organ systems and the relationships among physiologic systems at the cellular, tissue, organ, and system levels. A comprehensive understanding of how each system aids in the maintenance of homeostasis is stressed in the study of cellular structure and physiology, the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, and nervous systems. A strong background in biology and basic knowledge of physiological systems is assumed. Human cadaver dissections may be demonstrated in association with each organ system studied. Concurrent registration in BIO 251 is recommended.

BIO 202 Anatomy & Physiology II - 4.0 Credits

Prerequisites:

Continuation of BIO 201. An in-depth study of the structure and function of human organ systems and the relationships among physiologic systems at the cellular, tissue, organ, and system levels. A comprehensive understanding of how each system aids in the maintenance of homeostasis is stressed in the study of the endocrine, cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, excretory, and reproductive systems. Human cadaver dissections may be demonstrated in association with each organ system studied. Concurrent registration in BIO 252 is recommended.

BIO 310 Invertebrate Zoology and Lab - 4.0 Credits

Prerequisites:

A study of the biology and taxonomy of major invertebrate groups with special emphasis on structure-function relationships: their life histories, evolution, ecology and economic importance. Laboratory sessions involve the observation and dissection of representative invertebrate organisms in order that a clear understanding of each taxonomic phylum may be attained.

BIO 312 Developmental Biology and Lab - 4.0 Credits

Prerequisites:

A study of progressive changes that occur within cells, tissues and organisms during their life span. Development at the molecular, biochemical, genetic, morphological and physiological levels are examined through lecture, discussion and laboratory exercises.

BIO 322 Vertebrate Zoology and Lab - 4.0 Credits

Prerequisites:

A study of the evolution and comparative structure and function of the organ systems in all major groups of the phylum chordata. Laboratory work requires dissection of lamprey, shark, mud puppy and cat with frequent reference to other representative vertebrates, especially humans.

Biology Electives, 2-6 credits:

Biology/middle–secondary education double majors must take the following courses, which may be applied toward their biology electives:

BIO 104 Environmental Science & Lab - 4.0 Credits

A study of the organization of ecosystems and human use of natural resources, including problems and opportunities generated by human interaction with the environment. Basic ecological principles are applied to current environmental issues and topics. Environmental case studies and current environmental literature are employed. Laboratory activities include field trips, simulations and other activities designed to enhance lecture topics.

BIO 315 Ecology - 3.0 Credits

Prerequisites:

A lecture course involving study of populations, communities and individual organisms in relation to their environment. Abiotic and biotic factors, chemical cycles, population and community ecology and succession are studied in depth. Interaction of organisms with physical and chemical components of the environment is stressed. Use of statistical methods in ecology is covered.

The Marian University Bachelor of Science in Biology program is designed to appeal to students with a variety of career interests in biology. Through effective teaching, advising and scholarly activity, the Marian University Bachelor of Science in Biology program prepares students to engage in scientific inquiry and pursue a career in our scientific and technological society.

In addition, the Marian University Bachelor of Science in Biology program connects with other academic programs, including Nursing and Education. Pre-nursing majors learn fundamentals of science, anatomy, physiology, and microbiology that they will build into clinical skills as they transition into their professional studies. Secondary Education majors may select Biology as their content area for a double major (Secondary Ed/Biology) and take a prescribed curriculum in biology for teaching certification through the Marian University Bachelor of Science in Biology program.

Graduates of the Marian University Bachelor of Science in Biology program find a world of opportunities waiting for them. For many, their path is graduate school, so during their time in the Marian University Bachelor of Science in Biology program they couple their biology major with another major or minor in the sciences, or engage in a pre-professional curriculum. Whether graduate school is in your future or not, the BS in Biology program offers outstanding theoretical and practical preparation for careers in medicine, veterinary medicine, optometry, allied health, research, environmental conservation and teaching – many of which are expected to see exceptional job growth.

A key benefit to studying biology through the Marian University Bachelor of Science in Biology program is the true liberal arts core we provide in our academic setting. At Marian, you’ll immerse yourself in the theory and practical application of biological principles, while at the same time enhancing your education with exploration of the arts, humanities and social sciences. You’ll see how these areas of inquiry interconnect in the real world. And you’ll see how they’re also impacted by things like social justice and service to a greater cause, which are pursuits that have always been a part of Marian’s founding mission.

Biology majors must achieve an average GPA of 2.50 in their biology coursework before graduation. Transfer students must complete one-half of their major and one-third of their minor credits at Marian University.

Ryan Breuer is currently an Extension & Outreach Dairy Field Specialist for the Iowa State University in Northwest Iowa. Formally, Ryan was a veterinarian (Bovine & Food Animal medicine) at a private practice. He attended the University of Wisconsin – Madison Veterinary School after graduating from Marian with majors in Biology and Chemistry. (’08)

Dr. Matthew Zimmerman is an Associate Professor and Director of the Free Radicals in Medicine Program at the University of Nebraska Medical Center. After earning a B.S. degree with majors in Biology and Cytotechnology, he attended graduate school at the University of Iowa and earned his Ph.D. in 2004. (’99)

Dan Tenpas is a teacher at Beaver Dam High School. He graduated from Marian University with a B.S. degree with majors in Biology and Middle/Secondary Education, as well as a minor in Environmental Science. (’12)

Jessica Brandt, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor
920.923.8650
[email protected]

John Hammond, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor
920.923.7657
[email protected]

John Morris, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor
920.923.7140
[email protected]

As a student in the Bachelor of Science in Biology program, you’ll be presented with countless opportunities to enhance your learning experience and set yourself apart in the eyes of employers and graduate schools. From gaining valuable insights into human anatomy to working on significant research projects and presenting your findings to the Marian community, your possibilities are endless

For more information, please contact:

John Morris, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor & Chair
Biology Department
920.923.7140
[email protected]

Curriculum

The Marian University Bachelor of Science in Biology program curriculum aims to help students find truths from the natural world that can enhance the way we live. Students benefit from our small, dynamic lectures, which give students theoretical knowledge through extensive laboratory, research, and field work. Those in the BS in Biology program work closely with experienced and respected faculty, who are recognized leaders in the field and believe in a true mentoring relationship with their students.

General Education Courses

As a bachelor’s level student, you are required to take about 30 credits of general education courses as part of the 120 credits required for a bachelor’s degree. Gen eds are required regardless of your major.

All students take 10.5 to 17 credits in these areas:

  • Mathematical Reasoning
  • Argumentative and Research Writing
  • Introduction to Christian Theology
  • Interpersonal Communication
  • Introduction to Ethical Reasoning
  • First Year Studies

Core Courses

Biology majors will take courses covering topics such as:

  • Biological Principles
  • Cell biology
  • Microbiology
  • Chemistry
  • Ecology
  • Anatomy & physiology
  • Zoology

For a list of all degrees and courses offered at Marian University, please view the Academic Bulletin.


2.6 Write the code for the analysis

In the R as a Calculator example above, you were asked to type (or copy and paste) R code into an R script and run it. For the assignment, you will need to take that existing R code and edit it.

You have two options for how to do that. You could use the R script you created during the tutorial, or you can start with a fresh script with exactly the code you need. The second option is probably easier.

For convenience, the code used in the example above has been copied into an R script called calculator.R. You can use that code to start your assignment.

Open the calculator.R script by clicking its name in the Files tab (lower right pane). This will open the script in the source pane (upper left).

To differentiate this analysis from the previous one, let’s name our vector of data x instead of k . Make these changes by hand, or use the find and replace function (a magnifying glass icon in source pane). Put “k” (without the quotation marks) in the Find box and “x” in the Replace box. Check the box labeled “Whole words only”. Click Find, then click Replace, until there are no more k’s in the script. You can also use the Replace All button, but be careful! It’s easy to replace things you didn’t intend.

Next, find the line of code where you created the vector in the tutorial, which should look like this:

In the line of code, replace the five numbers with the set of numbers given above. It’s always better to copy and paste those numbers into the code rather than typing (less change of a typo), but don’t forget to add the commas between them!

At this point, the code should all work as planned and you are ready to run it. Before you do, it might be a good idea to clear your environment. That way you won’t accidentally use the previous value of n or sem from the tutorial in this new analysis. To do this, click the broom icon in the Environment tab.

Now put your cursor on the first line of code and run it. Press the Run button in the source tab or use the keyboard shortcut Ctrl+Enter (Cmd + Return on a Mac). Continue running all the lines of code. If you get an error or don’t get the output you expected in the console, check with a classmate or the instructor.

Compare the answers below to those in your Console tab (lower left pane) to make sure you got the right answers.


Gabbie is very honest and listens to your expectations. She made the session very comfortable which eases the mood when your working on a difficult topic such as Anatomy and Physiology. She also has great communication skills and I believe she will.

Great instructor. Provides detailed explanations and is very knowledgeable and friendly.

This was just a introduction session but i feel he had everything organized very well and qould be a good fit for my tutoring needs

Gina was very informative and had a strong understanding of the material she went over

Jesse is the best. He is a great listener, and is super patient! His tutoring skills are the dopest ever

I had a perfect exam preparation. Very friendly and very in-depth knowledge. In addition, all agreements were observed.


Admissions Information

Freshman/First Year Admission: Freshmen who would like to declare any Biology major must have a minimum Math ACT subscore of 20, equivalent Math SAT subscore (490 on tests taken prior to March 2016 or 520 on tests taken March 2016 or later), or a minimum Ohio University math placement score of PL1 to enter these programs. Students who do not meet this criterion may still earn admission to Ohio University but will not be able to enter any of the Biological Sciences majors directly. After admission to Ohio University, students may transfer into a Biological Sciences major if they have earned a grade of "C" or better in both BIOS 1700 and BIOS 1705 and have a minimum accumulative GPA of 2.5 at Ohio University.

Change of Program Policy: Current Ohio University students who would like to declare one of the Biology majors must have a minimum Math ACT subscore of 20 equivalent Math SAT subscore (490 on tests taken prior to March 2016 or 520 on tests taken March 2016 or later) a minimum Ohio University math placement score of PL1 or a grade of "C" or better in equivalent courses to both BIOS 1700 and BIOS 1705 with a minimum accumulative Ohio University GPA of 2.5.

External Transfer Admission: Transfer students who would like to declare one of the Biology majors must have a minimum Math ACT subscore of 20 equivalent Math SAT subscore (490 on tests taken prior to March 2016 or 520 on tests taken March 2016 or later) a minimum Ohio University math placement score of PL1 or a grade of "C" or better in the equivalent courses to both BIOS 1700 and BIOS 1705 with a minimum accumulative GPA of 2.5 from their previous institution.


Bile Pigments: Origin and Formation | Digestive Juice | Human | Biology

In this article we will discuss about:- 1. Origin and Formation of Bile Pigments 2. Chemistry and Varieties of Bile Pigments 3. Circulation and Fate.

Origin and Formation of Bile Pigments:

The old and worn-out red blood cells disintegrate and are removed from the circulation by the cells of the reticuloendothelial system the bone-marrow appears to be the most active site. Haemoglobin is released and by degradation, opening of the porphyrin ring system occurs. The degraded compound is known as verdohaemoglobin or choleglobin. In the next stage it is broken down into protein and haem. Protein is broken down into amino acids which enter the general amino acid pool of the body.

The iron present in the haem remains stored in the body as apoferritin, ferritin and haemosiderin which help in the formation of new haemoglobin. The rest of the haem is converted into yellow pigment bilirubin which is oxidised into green pigment biliverdin or the green pigment biliverdin is formed first which by reduction forms the yellow pigment bilirubin. Biliverdin reductase is the enzyme which catalyses the reduction of biliverdin to bilirubin. These are also derived to some extent from myohaemoglobin.

A schematic representation of bile pigment formation is given below in the Fig. 9.26. It does not represent proved steps of the reactions, but only attempts to summarise the facts and supplies possible pathways.

The oxidation and reduction take place by transference of hydrogen from the substrate and NAD/NADH or NADP/NADPH system. The bilirubin then probably combines with albumin of the plasma. When it enters the liver cells, plasma albumin is separated from bilirubin. In the liver cells and to lesser extent in kidney cells it is conjugated with glucuronic acid (UDP glucuronic acid) and forms monoglucuronide and diglucuronide.

In hepatic bile these are bound in addition with protein and in gall-bladder bile with lipoprotein, cholesterol and bile acids. The reaction is catalised by glucuronyl transferase. Some bilirubin is also esterified by sulphuric acid as bilirubin sulphate.

Chemistry and Varieties of Bile Pigments:

A number of pigments are present in bile. The two chief pigments are bilirubin (golden-yellow) and biliverdin (green). Bilirubin (C33H36N4O6) is the chief pigment of human and carnivorous bile. Biliverdin (C33H36N4O8) is the oxidation product of bilirubin. It is present chiefly in the bile of birds and of herbivorous animals.

Biliprasin is supposed to be an intermediate product formed during oxidation of bilirubin into biliverdin. Bilicyanin (blue), bilifuscin (red) and choletelin (yellow) are three other pigments formed by the successive oxidation of biliverdin. They are found in the gall-stones. The bile pigments are porphyrin compounds and constitute about 15 – 20% of the total solids of the liver bile. [They can be detected by Gmelin’s test.]

Circulation and Fate of Bile Pigments:

Liver (Kupffer cells), spleen and bone-marrow, being the chief seats of the reticulo-endothelial system, take the main part in bilirubin formation. Blood leaving the spleen and bone-marrow has a much higher bilirubin content than the arterial blood. Normal blood serum contains traces of bilirubin which on the average amounts to about 0.5 – 0.8 unit. It is to be noted that bilirubin, as it is present in blood (haemobilirubin), is not the same as that present in bile (cholebilirubin). Haemobilirubin remains combined with serum albumin and cholebilirubin remains in combination with glucuronic acid.

The main differences between the two bilirubins are summarised below in table 9.3:

Van Den Bergh Reaction:

This test helps in detection of bile pigment in blood serum.

There are three types of reactions:

Two types of solutions are used:

Sulphanilic acid (0.1 gm), concentrated HCI (1.5 ml), distilled water—(100 ml).

Sodium nitrate (0.5 gm) and water (100 ml).

25ml of No. I solution is mixed with 0.75 ml of No. II solution—Diazo reagent. 1 ml of serum is taken in a small test-tube.

To it equal amount of Diazo reagent is added and any one of the following reactions may occur:

i. Immediate or Prompt:

A bluish-violet colour immediately appears (within 10 – 30 sec).

Reddish colour appears which gradually becomes violet and this takes from 5-15 minutes or even half an hour.

A reddish colour appears promptly and after much longer time becomes violet.

At first 1 ml of serum is treated with 2 ml of 95% alcohol. It is shaken and centrifuged. 1 ml of supernatant fluid is taken and to it 0.25 ml of Diazo reagent is added. A reddish-violet colour appears immediately.

In Jaundice there is excessive accumulation of bile pigments in blood which causes yellowish discoloura­tion of skin, mucous membrane and conjunctiva.

There are three types of jaundice:

1. Obstructive Jaundice:

Van den Bergh test is direct and prompt.

2. Haemolytic Jaundice:

Van den Bergh test is indi­rect.

3. Toxic or Infective Jaundice: (Where there is Paren­chymatous Liver Damage):

Van den Bergh test is delayed direct or biphasic.

After passing through the hepatic cells, conju­gated bilirubin and biliverdin enter bile channels and then into the intestine along with bile.

In the intestine following changes take place:

Bilirubin mesobilirubin mesobilirubinogen stercobilinogen. On being exposed to air stercobilinogen is further oxidised into yellowish-brown stercobilin and is responsible for the normal colour of the faeces. About half the amount of total bile pigments is excreted in the fae­ces, which varies from 40 – 280 mgm per day.

The remaining part of stercobilinogen is reab­sorbed from the intestine and is carried back to liv­er. Under normal conditions, this reabsorbed sterco­bilinogen is almost fully re-excreted in the bile. A trace of stercobilinogen may fail to pass through the liver, and is excreted in the urine. This excretory product is named as urobilinogen which is quickly oxidised into urobilin by the air after the urine is voided (Fig. 9.27).

It is believed that some urobilinogen passes directly to the kidney escaping the liver for excretion (not shown in Fig. 9.27). Urobilinogen is identical with stercobilinogen and urobilin is identical with stercobilin. Normally faecal excretion of bile pigments varies from 50 – 250 mgm per day, only 1-2 mgm being excreted through urine.

When liver is damaged, urobilinogen reabsorbed from the intestine, fails to pass through the liver cells and appears in the urine in a larger amount. Under such conditions, urine contains considerable amounts of urobilinogen and urobilin. Presence of urobilinogen in urine in excess, therefore, indicates functional deficiency of liver.


Friendly Biology Student Textbook Secular Version

"Bargain Books" are brand new items that have minor physical blemishes due to shipping or handling that do not affect the use of the item. All Bargain Books are sold as is and all sales are final (no returns, exchanges or cancellations). Bargain books will remain in shopping cart for up to 12 hours and will then be removed if order is not completed. Orders consisting of regular and Bargain items can be purchased by credit card or PayPal and are shipped together (with two packing slips).

This item is a digital download file and is not a printed or physical product. Upon completion of checkout, you will receive an email with a link for you to download the file and save to your local device. Please note that ebooks and other digital media downloads are not returnable and all sales are final.

Product Description:

The Student Textbook is available in a Christian Worldview version and a Secular version. Worth mentioning, content is marginally different (scripture references in the Christian Worldview version). Co-ops or classroom students could use the books concurrently with success. Lessons are expected to take one week to complete, with readings from 10-25 pages, so some lessons may need additional time to complete. Textbook readings are accompanied by lab activities. Labs are designed to be homeschool friendly and use household or easily found items. A sampling of lab experiences includes: osmosis with eggs and vegetables, creating a cell model, determining pH, and making butter and yogurt. You will need internet access for the Taxonomy activity. The Textbook includes space for documenting the lab activities although students may wish to make a science notebook. The author is in the process of developing video dissection labs contact us for availability. No microscope is required for this course.

Publisher Description:

Friendly Biology opens the world of biology to high school students in a gentle, non-intimidating manner. Students are led through meaningful, well-written lessons and lab activities with the goal of attaining a greater respect for the beauty and complexity of living things.

Topics covered include:
Characteristics common to all living things
Basic chemistry as it pertains to living things
The roles of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids in living systems
Cytology
Mitosis and meiosis
Chromosome duplication and protein synthesis
The importance of pH in living systems
Methods of reproduction
Mendelian genetics
Taxonomy
A survey of members of each kingdom of living things with emphasis placed on various classes and orders of importance
An overview of all body systems of humans and
Ecology of living things.
28 lessons with lab activities included.
Worksheet pages sold separately in Student Workbook.
Tests sold separately in Tests and Answer Keys Booklet.

Facing the high school sciences with an apprehensive learner or overwhelmed home-teacher? Check out this new Biology course from the authors of Friendly Chemistry!

With a goal of teaching high school students the complexity of living things in a gentle, non-intimidating manner, this course goes above and beyond expectations. Presenting a traditional scope of study, sans evolution and natural selection, this text contains 28 lessons, vibrant illustrations, and lab activities for a complete, year-long course. Topically, students will study the characteristics of living things basic chemistry as it pertains to living things the roles of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids in living systems importance of pH in living systems cytology mitosis and meiosis chromosome duplication and protein synthesis reproduction (asexual and sexual) genetics taxonomy, including a survey of each kingdom with an emphasis on various classes and orders an overview of human anatomy and physiology and the foundations of ecology.

The Student Textbook is available in a Christian Worldview version and a Secular version. Worth mentioning, content is marginally different (scripture references in the Christian Worldview version). Co-ops or classroom students could use the books concurrently with success. Lessons are expected to take one week to complete, with readings from 10-25 pages, so some lessons may need additional time to complete. Textbook readings are accompanied by lab activities. Labs are designed to be homeschool friendly and use household or easily found items. A sampling of lab experiences includes: osmosis with eggs and vegetables, creating a cell model, determining pH, and making butter and yogurt. You will need internet access for the Taxonomy activity. The Textbook includes space for documenting the lab activities although students may wish to make a science notebook. The author is in the process of developing video dissection labs contact us for availability. No microscope is required for this course.

The Student Workbook is a vital component to this course and works with either version: Secular or Christian Worldview. The 2 worksheets per lesson contain a mix of fill in the blank questions, matching exercises and puzzles. Not reproducible, each child will need their own copy.

A Lesson Tests and Answer Keys book is also available. This contains the lesson tests, test answers and the answer key for the student workbook. Lesson tests contain multiple choice questions and photocopying within one family is permissible per the author.

This course would make an excellent introduction to the author’s Friendly Anatomy or to ease struggling students into the high school level sciences to build confidence while learning. All books are soft cover.


Method

Overview

ZIFA adopts a latent variable model based on the FA framework and augments it with an additional zero-inflation modulation layer. Like FA, the data generation process assumes that the separable cell states or subtypes initially exist as points in a latent (unobserved) low-dimensional space. These are then projected onto points in a latent high-dimensional gene expression space via a linear transformation and the addition of Gaussian-distributed measurement noise. Each measurement then has some probability of being set to zero via the dropout model that modulates the latent distribution of expression values. This allows us to account for observed zero-inflated single-cell gene expression data (Fig. 1 c). The scaling parameter in the dropout model can allow for a large range of dropout-expression profiles (Fig. 1 d).

In the following, we provide a more detailed mathematical treatment of the proposed zero-inflated factor analysis model, although we leave a complete exposition for Additional file 1. A Python-based software implementation and source code are made freely available online via an MIT License: https://github.com/epierson9/ZIFA.

Statistical model

Let N be the number of samples, D be the number of genes and K be the desired number of latent dimensions. The data are given by a high-dimensional N×D data matrix Y= [y 1,…,y N], where y ij is the level of expression (log read count) of the jth gene in the ith sample. The data are assumed to be generated from a projection of a latent low-dimensional N×K matrix Z= [z 1,…,z N] (KD). In all derivations below, we use use i=1,…,N to index over samples (cells), j=1,…,D to index over genes and k=1,…,K to index over latent dimensions. Each sample y i is drawn independently:


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