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Are there foods which not only prevent but help fighting cancer?

Are there foods which not only prevent but help fighting cancer?


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I was reading a probably not to serious webpage and I found this quote

" Certain types of vegetables, such as the cruciferous variety, are not only nutrient-dense but contain compounds that may fight cancer, according to the National Cancer Institute."

Then I looked more information about this, but I can only find references to foods helping prevent cancer but they dont seem to say they help fight cancer when it's already present.

This page says the following foods help prevent cancer, but later make an ambiguos statement that you could think they imply those foods help fighting cancer when it's presented

The following is a list of foods that have been shown to have cancer-fighting properties. While some are well-known super foods, others may surprise you. You won't find a burger or fries on this list - when it comes to cancer prevention, clean eating prevails:

http://www.cancercenter.com/community/newsletter/article/Foods-that-have-cancer-fighting-properties/

So, my question is, are there foods which not only prevent but help fighting cancer when it already exists?


The short answer is, no. There really isn't any good evidence that a person can eat enough of any chemical to have a clinically detectable effect on cancer.

Note that any study that shows an effect on cancer cells in a petri dish doesn't count as demonstrating that it would do anything in a person with cancer. It might be that the chemical would not work the same in the body, or would not work the same on real cancer cells growing in a person (not cells cultivated to grow in a petri dish for 30 years). And even if they did kill cancers like in a petri dish, that doesn't mean that you can actually eat enough of the chemical to get a high enough concentration to have that effect.

That link is pretty much click-bait, and nothing more.


Are there foods which not only prevent but help fighting cancer? - Biology

If your treatment has caused side effects like nausea, taste changes, or mouth sores, you probably have already started your own mental list of foods you'd much rather steer clear of. However, there are some foods that no matter how good they sound are probably best avoided due to the risk of foodborne illness, aka food poisoning. Because some treatments can weaken your immune system until at least a few weeks after they’ve ended (longer if you had a stem cell/bone marrow transplant), food poisoning is not something to tempt. The results of developing a foodborne illness can be serious.

Eating raw or undercooked foods is a common cause of food poisoning. Proper cooking destroys bacteria, but they can start to grow on cooked food if it is left out or in the refrigerator for too long. Food also can become contaminated when someone infected with a virus or other “bug” handles it.

Paying attention to food safety rules and being extra careful when handling, preparing, and storing food is definitely important. However, some people who are receiving or have recently finished cancer treatment should avoid some foods entirely, even if they may have eaten them with no problems in the past. These include:

Cold hot dogs or deli lunch meat (cold cuts)—Always cook or reheat until the meat is steaming hot.

Unpasteurized (raw) milk and milk products, including raw milk yogurt

Soft cheeses made from unpasteurized milk, such as blue-veined (a type of blue cheese), Brie, Camembert, feta, goat cheese, and queso fresco/blanco

Deli-prepared salads with egg, ham, chicken, or seafood

Refrigerated pâté—Sorry foodies!

Unwashed fresh fruits and vegetables, especially leafy vegetables that can hide dirt and other contaminants

Unpasteurized fruit juice or cider

Raw sprouts like alfalfa sprouts

Raw or undercooked beef (especially ground beef) or other raw or undercooked meat and poultry

Raw or undercooked shellfish, like oysters—These items may carry the hepatitis A virus and should be cooked thoroughly to destroy the virus.

Some types of fish, both raw and cooked, as they may contain high levels of mercury

Sushi and sashimi, which often contain raw fish—Commercially frozen fish, especially those labeled “sushi-grade” or “sashimi-grade,” is safer than other fish, but check with your doctor, nutritionist, or another member of your health care team before eating these foods.

Undercooked eggs, such as soft boiled, over easy, and poached

Raw, unpasteurized eggs or foods made with raw egg, such as homemade raw cookie dough

Talk with your doctor or another member of your health care team about how long you should take food precautions and when you can return to eating certain foods again.


What’s An Autoimmune Disease?

When you have an autoimmune disease, your immune system misidentifies healthy tissues and organs as being foreign. This causes the body to produce antibodies that attack your body’s own tissues.

Your symptoms might come on quickly or gradually. You may feel overwhelming fatigue, crippling pain, and debilitating weakness. Or you may feel dizzy and have brain fog.

You may feel miserable like you’re on a roller coaster of good days and bad days with no end in sight. These diseases can be frustrating and isolating, but each experience is unique.

All autoimmune diseases share one common theme: an out-of-sync immune system that has turned inward, attacking parts of the body as if they were foreign invaders.

In fact, autoimmune diseases can show up in at least 80 different ways in all areas of the body.

But all autoimmune diseases share one common theme: an out-of-sync immune system that has turned inward, attacking parts of the body as if they were foreign invaders.

Your immune system is crucially important, serving the purpose of protecting your body from infections and bacteria. But when its functions are out of balance, your immune system can become dangerous.


Mushrooms

Certain types of mushrooms, including, but not limited to, turkey tail, reishi, hen of the woods, and agaricus blazei have been shown in studies to benefit people fighting cancer and to improve the overall immune system. Reishi is a great source of anti-oxidants. It can inhibit some malignant tumor growth, and it has a massive amount of other, amazing health benefits. Agaricus also contains strong anti-tumor properties. Countries like Japan and Brazil use it in cancer treatment protocols. Current research of turkey tail mushrooms reveals their cancer-killing effects, while hen of the woods (also know as maitake), provides anti-viral support and reduces blood pressure and blood sugar.


The best cancer-fighting foods

No foods protect people against cancer completely. The term cancer-fighting foods refers to foods that may lower the risk of developing cancer if a person adds them to their diet.

This article looks at the best cancer-fighting foods and explains the science that supports these claims.

Foods that contain naturally occurring compounds that have potent anticancer properties include:

Share on Pinterest Apples contain anticancer properties that may also help prevent inflammation, cardiovascular disease, and infections.

The phrase “an apple a day keeps the doctor away” actually rings fairly true. Apples contain polyphenols that have promising anticancer properties.

Polyphenols are plant-based compounds that may prevent inflammation, cardiovascular disease, and infections.

Some research suggests that polyphenols possess anticancer and tumor-fighting properties.

For example, the polyphenol phloretin inhibits a protein called glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) plays a role in advanced-stage cell growth in certain types of cancer.

One study from 2018 in the Journal of Food and Drug Analysis suggests that apple phloretin significantly inhibits the growth of breast cancer cells, while not affecting normal cells.

Berries are rich in vitamins, minerals, and dietary fibers. Scientists have shown a lot of interest in berries due to their antioxidant properties and potential health benefits.

One study shows that anthocyanin, which is a compound in blackberries, lowers biomarkers for colon cancer.

Another study demonstrates that the anti-inflammatory effects of blueberries can prevent the growth of breast cancer tumors in mice.

Cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli, cauliflower, and kale, contain beneficial nutrients, including vitamin C, vitamin K, and manganese.

Cruciferous vegetables also contain sulforaphane, a plant compound with anticancer properties.

One study shows that sulforaphane significantly inhibits cancer cell growth and stimulates cell death in colon cancer cells.

Another study shows that sulforaphane in combination with genistein, a compound in soybeans, can significantly inhibit breast cancer tumor development and size. Sulforaphane also inhibits histone deacetylase, an enzyme with links to cancer development.

One review recommends 3 to 5 servings of cruciferous vegetables per week for the best cancer-preventive effects.

Carrots contain several essential nutrients including vitamin K, vitamin A, and antioxidants.

Carrots also contain high amounts of beta-carotene, which is responsible for the distinct orange color.

Recent studies reveal that beta-carotene plays a vital role in supporting the immune system and may prevent certain types of cancer.

A review of eight studies shows that beta-carotene has links to a reduction in the risk of breast and prostate cancer.

Another analysis shows that higher consumption of carrots results in a 26 percent lower risk of developing stomach cancer.

Fatty fish, including salmon, mackerel, and anchovies, is rich in essential nutrients, such as vitamin B, potassium, and omega-3 fatty acids.

One study found that people whose diets were high in freshwater fish had a 53 percent lower risk for colorectal cancer than those low in freshwater fish.

Another study found that consumption of fish oil later in life has links to significantly lower risk for prostate cancer.

Finally, a study following 68,109 people found that people who consumed fish oil supplements at least four times a week were 63 percent less likely to develop colon cancer than those who did not.

According to the American Institute for Cancer Research, all nuts exhibit cancer-preventing properties, but scientists have studied walnuts more than other types of nut.

Walnuts contain a substance called pedunculagin, which the body metabolizes into urolithins. Urolithins are compounds that bind to estrogen receptors and may play a role in preventing breast cancer.

In one animal study , mice receiving whole walnuts and walnut oil had higher levels of tumor-suppressing genes than the mice receiving vegetable oil.

Legumes, such as beans, peas, and lentils, are high in fiber, which may help lower a person’s risk of developing cancer.

One meta-analysis of 14 studies shows an association between higher legume consumption and lower risk of colorectal cancer.

Another study examines the relationship between the intake of bean fiber and risk of breast cancer.

The study results indicate that people who ate diets high in bean fiber were 20 percent less likely to develop breast cancer than those who did not meet their daily fiber intake.

Although the foods listed above are everyday products and readily available, some people may not want to make significant dietary or lifestyle changes. In this case, there are plenty of supplements and medications available that contain anticancer compounds.

Vitamins A, C, and E are notable for their anticancer properties and are available as supplements in most major grocery stores.

Most of the plant-based compounds listed throughout this article, such as phloretin, anthocyanin, and sulforaphane, come in pill form.

Over-the-counter medications, such as aspirin and ibuprofen, may also lower the risk of cancer in some people.

Always speak to a medical professional before starting a new medication or supplement regimen.

Research into preventing cancer through diet is still in the early stages and requires further testing. Scientists carried out most of the studies mentioned in cells or mice.

However, it is important to remember that eating a balanced diet high in fresh fruits, vegetables, and good fats will benefit overall health.


Curcumin

By sprinkling curcumin into your favorite dishes, you could be adding much more than a little zest to your meal -- you could add years to your life.

How It Works

Experts credit curcumin's anti-inflammatory effects for its ability to fight cancer. "Most diseases are caused by chronic inflammation that persists over long periods of time," says Bharat B. Aggarwal, PhD, a biochemist at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. Recent studies have shown curcumin to interfere with cell-signaling pathways, thereby suppressing the transformation, proliferation, and invasion of cancerous cells.

Cancer-Fighting Abilities

Curcumin's protective effects may extend to bladder and gastrointestinal cancers. Some say they don't stop with these types of cancer. "Among all the cancers we and others have examined, no cancer yet has been found which is not affected by curcumin. This is expected, as inflammation is the mediator for most cancer," Aggarwal tells WebMD.

How to Get It

Curcumin flavors lots of popular Indian dishes, as it is the main ingredient in curry powder. It complements rice, chicken, vegetable, and lentils. Some chefs sprinkle the bright, yellow powder into recipes for a burst of color.


Which foods are considered alkaline and which aren’t?

Generally, vegetables, fruits and seeds are considered to be alkaline, whilst meats, beans, nuts and grains are acidic. So, an alkaline diet would be rich in vegetables and fruit with little meat consumption. Dairy, eggs and processed foods aren’t considered alkaline and would be avoided in this diet. A diet focused on plant-based ingredients is similar to AICR’s diet recommendations for lowering cancer risk – with red meat limited to no more than 18 oz. per week, and avoiding processed meat.

However, some very healthy foods are listed as “acidic” such as whole grains, beans and even some vegetables such as carrots. So keep it simple and follow AICR’s New American Plate to lower cancer risk simply by filling at least 2/3 of your plate with vegetables, fruits and whole grains, and 1/3 or less with meat, poultry and fish.


Stop Cancer| Eat A High Protein Low Carb Diet

There many factors that go into an anti-cancer diet. According to a recent study published in Cancer Research “a change in diet can have an impact on cancer risk”. This study demonstrates that a diet higher in protein and lower in carbohydrates can inhibit the growth of cancer cells.

Cancer cells have a unique physiology and prefer to get their energy from sugars. Lowering carbohydrates in the diet (starches, sugars, sweets, fruit, etc.) may be one of the reasons this works. It is well known that a low-glycemic load (low carb, low sugars, low sweets) diet inhibits cancer growth. A low glycemic diet is healthier for you in many ways, not only lowering cancer risk but also lowering risk of heart disease, diabetes and obesity.

It is very important when choosing proteins to choose healthy sources. Being higher on the food chain, animal protein will concentrate more toxic chemicals than plant proteins. If you choose animal proteins be sure that you choose organic, grass fed (not grain fed) and hormone free products. Grass fed animals provide us with healthy, anti-inflammatory and cancer inhibiting omega 3 fatty acids, while the commercial grain fed animals provide high amounts of pro-inflammatory omega 6 fatty acids.

Do not choose flesh and dairy products from animals that were fed hormones. Typically growth hormones and estrogens are fed to animals to fatten them up and speed up their development. In our modern world not only is our food raised with hormone additives, but many pesticides and plastics also stimulate hormones in our bodies. These hormone stimulating environmental chemicals are referred to as xenobiotics.

This increased exposure to hormones in our foods and in our environment is a cause of the increase in hormonal cancers such as breast cancers and prostate cancer. Therefore, when looking to increase protein in the diet, be very careful about your choices. Legumes, beans, nuts and seeds are excellent vegetarian sources of protein. I recommend that you get at least half your daily protein from plant rather than animal sources.

It is easy to lower carbohydrates in the diet by eliminating all white, refined breads and grains (instead choose whole grains) and all refined and concentrated sugars (white and brown sugar, honey, maple syrup, high fructose corn syrup, agave syrup, candies and pastries) and also concentrated fruits (fruit juice, dried fruit).

Instead eat fresh whole fruit in moderation. The fiber in whole foods is important to regulating blood sugar and to normal bowel function. Eat more non starchy vegetables and less fruit overall. The low glycemic/low sugar fruits are primarily the more tart and sour fruits such as berries, pomegranates, kiwis which are high in super antioxidants which are very protective to our cells and our genetic material, thus protecting us from developing cancer. Don’t forget that alcohol is a sugar and adds carbohydrates to the diet.

I have written a 30 page Free Report, Three Dangerous Cancer Survival Myths, that shows you how to make choices like these in your daily life that will protect you and your family from cancer risk and promote a healthy cancer free life. Click here to get instant access.

Here are the details of the recently published study: Eating a low-carbohydrate, high-protein diet may reduce the risk of cancer and slow the growth of tumors already present, according to a study published in Cancer Research, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research.

The study was conducted in mice, but the scientists involved agree that the strong biological findings are definitive enough that an effect in humans can be considered.

Cancer Research editor-in-chief George Prendergast, Ph.D., CEO of the Lankenau Institute for Medical Research, says “Many cancer patients are interested in making changes in areas that they can control, and this study definitely lends credence to the idea that a change in diet can be beneficial,” said Prendergast, who was not involved with the study.

The researchers compared two diets. The first diet, a typical Western diet, contained about 55 percent carbohydrate, 23 percent protein and 22 percent fat. The second, which is somewhat like a South Beach diet but higher in protein, contained 15 percent carbohydrate, 58 percent protein and 26 percent fat. They found that the tumor cells grew consistently slower on the second diet.

As well, mice genetically predisposed to breast cancer were put on these two diets and almost half of them on the Western diet developed breast cancer within their first year of life while none on the low-carbohydrate, high-protein diet did. Interestingly, only one on the Western diet reached a normal life span (approximately 2 years), with 70 percent of them dying from cancer while only 30 percent of those on the low-carbohydrate diet developed cancer and more than half these mice reached or exceeded their normal life span.

Tumor cells, unlike normal cells, need significantly more glucose (sugar) to grow and thrive. Restricting carbohydrate intake can significantly limit blood glucose and insulin, a hormone that has been shown in many independent studies to promote tumor growth in both humans and mice.

Furthermore, a low-carbohydrate, high-protein diet has the potential to both boost the ability of the immune system to kill cancer cells and prevent obesity, which leads to chronic inflammation and cancer.


Cruciferous Vegetables and Cancer Prevention

Cruciferous vegetables are part of the Brassica genus of plants. They include the following vegetables, among others:

  • Arugula
  • Bok choy
  • Broccoli
  • Brussels sprouts
  • Cabbage
  • Cauliflower
  • Collard greens
  • Horseradish
  • Kale
  • Radishes
  • Rutabaga
  • Turnips
  • Watercress
  • Wasabi

Why are cancer researchers studying cruciferous vegetables?

Cruciferous vegetables are rich in nutrients, including several carotenoids (beta-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin) vitamins C, E, and K folate and minerals. They also are a good fiber source.

In addition, cruciferous vegetables contain a group of substances known as glucosinolates, which are sulfur-containing chemicals. These chemicals are responsible for the pungent aroma and bitter flavor of cruciferous vegetables.

During food preparation, chewing, and digestion, the glucosinolates in cruciferous vegetables are broken down to form biologically active compounds such as indoles, nitriles, thiocyanates, and isothiocyanates (1). Indole-3-carbinol (an indole) and sulforaphane (an isothiocyanate) have been most frequently examined for their anticancer effects.

Indoles and isothiocyanates have been found to inhibit the development of cancer in several organs in rats and mice, including the bladder, breast, colon, liver, lung, and stomach (2, 3). Studies in animals and experiments with cells grown in the laboratory have identified several potential ways in which these compounds may help prevent cancer:

  • They help protect cells from DNA damage.
  • They help inactivate carcinogens.
  • They have antiviral and antibacterial effects.
  • They have anti-inflammatory effects.
  • They induce cell death (apoptosis).
  • They inhibit tumor blood vessel formation (angiogenesis) and tumor cell migration (needed for metastasis).

Studies in humans, however, have shown mixed results.

Is there evidence that cruciferous vegetables can help reduce cancer risk in people?

Researchers have investigated possible associations between intake of cruciferous vegetables and the risk of cancer. The evidence has been reviewed by various experts. Key studies regarding four common forms of cancer are described briefly below.

  • Prostate cancer: Cohort studies in the Netherlands (4), United States (5), and Europe (6) have examined a wide range of daily cruciferous vegetable intakes and found little or no association with prostate cancer risk. However, some case-control studies have found that people who ate greater amounts of cruciferous vegetables had a lower risk of prostate cancer (7, 8).
  • Colorectal cancer: Cohort studies in the United States and the Netherlands have generally found no association between cruciferous vegetable intake and colorectal cancer risk (9-11). The exception is one study in the Netherlands—the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer—in which women (but not men) who had a high intake of cruciferous vegetables had a reduced risk of colon (but not rectal) cancer (12).
  • Lung cancer: Cohort studies in Europe, the Netherlands, and the United States have had varying results (13-15). Most studies have reported little association, but one U.S. analysis—using data from the Nurses’ Health Study and the Health Professionals’ Follow-up Study—showed that women who ate more than 5 servings of cruciferous vegetables per week had a lower risk of lung cancer (16).
  • Breast cancer: One case-control study found that women who ate greater amounts of cruciferous vegetables had a lower risk of breast cancer (17). A meta-analysis of studies conducted in the United States, Canada, Sweden, and the Netherlands found no association between cruciferous vegetable intake and breast cancer risk (18). An additional cohort study of women in the United States similarly showed only a weak association with breast cancer risk (19).

A few studies have shown that the bioactive components of cruciferous vegetables can have beneficial effects on biomarkers of cancer-related processes in people. For example, one study found that indole-3-carbinol was more effective than placebo in reducing the growth of abnormal cells on the surface of the cervix (20).

In addition, several case-control studies have shown that specific forms of the gene that encodes glutathione S-transferase, which is the enzyme that metabolizes and helps eliminate isothiocyanates from the body, may influence the association between cruciferous vegetable intake and human lung and colorectal cancer risk (21-23).

Are cruciferous vegetables part of a healthy diet?

The federal government’s Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend consuming a variety of vegetables each day. Different vegetables are rich in different nutrients.

Vegetables are categorized into five subgroups: dark-green, red and orange, beans and peas (legumes), starchy, and other vegetables. Cruciferous vegetables fall into the “dark-green vegetables” category and the “other vegetables” category. More information about vegetables and diet, including how much of these foods should be eaten daily or weekly, is available from the U.S. Department of Agriculture website Choose My Plate.

Higher consumption of vegetables in general may protect against some diseases, including some types of cancer. However, when researchers try to distinguish cruciferous vegetables from other foods in the diet, it can be challenging to get clear results because study participants may have trouble remembering precisely what they ate. Also, people who eat cruciferous vegetables may be more likely than people who don’t to have other healthy behaviors that reduce disease risk. It is also possible that some people, because of their genetic background, metabolize dietary isothiocyanates differently. However, research has not yet revealed a specific group of people who, because of their genetics, benefit more than other people from eating cruciferous vegetables.

Selected References

Hayes JD, Kelleher MO, Eggleston IM. The cancer chemopreventive actions of phytochemicals derived from glucosinolates. European Journal of Nutrition 200847 Suppl 2:73-88.

Hecht SS. Inhibition of carcinogenesis by isothiocyanates. Drug Metabolism Reviews 200032(3-4):395-411.

Murillo G, Mehta RG. Cruciferous vegetables and cancer prevention. Nutrition and Cancer 200141(1-2):17-28.

Schuurman AG, Goldbohm RA, Dorant E, van den Brandt PA. Vegetable and fruit consumption and prostate cancer risk: a cohort study in The Netherlands. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 19987(8):673-680.

Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Liu Y, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. A prospective study of cruciferous vegetables and prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 200312(12):1403-1409.

Key TJ, Allen N, Appleby P, et al. Fruits and vegetables and prostate cancer: no association among 1104 cases in a prospective study of 130544 men in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). International Journal of Cancer 2004109(1):119-124.

Kolonel LN, Hankin JH, Whittemore AS, et al. Vegetables, fruits, legumes and prostate cancer: a multiethnic case-control study. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 20009(8):795-804.

Jain MG, Hislop GT, Howe GR, Ghadirian P. Plant foods, antioxidants, and prostate cancer risk: findings from case-control studies in Canada. Nutrition and Cancer 199934(2):173-184.

McCullough ML, Robertson AS, Chao A, et al. A prospective study of whole grains, fruits, vegetables and colon cancer risk. Cancer Causes & Control 200314(10):959-970.

Flood A, Velie EM, Chaterjee N, et al. Fruit and vegetable intakes and the risk of colorectal cancer in the Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project follow-up cohort. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 200275(5):936-943.

Michels KB, Edward Giovannucci, Joshipura KJ, et al. Prospective study of fruit and vegetable consumption and incidence of colon and rectal cancers. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 200092(21):1740-1752.

Voorrips LE, Goldbohm RA, van Poppel G, et al. Vegetable and fruit consumption and risks of colon and rectal cancer in a prospective cohort study: The Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer. American Journal of Epidemiology 2000152(11):1081-1092.

Neuhouser ML, Patterson RE, Thornquist MD, et al. Fruits and vegetables are associated with lower lung cancer risk only in the placebo arm of the beta-carotene and retinol efficacy trial (CARET). Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 200312(4):350-358.

Voorrips LE, Goldbohm RA, Verhoeven DT, et al. Vegetable and fruit consumption and lung cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer. Cancer Causes and Control 200011(2):101-115.

Chow WH, Schuman LM, McLaughlin JK, et al. A cohort study of tobacco use, diet, occupation, and lung cancer mortality. Cancer Causes and Control 19923(3):247-254.

Feskanich D, Ziegler RG, Michaud DS, et al. Prospective study of fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of lung cancer among men and women. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 200092(22):1812-1823.

Terry P, Wolk A, Persson I, Magnusson C. Brassica vegetables and breast cancer risk. JAMA 2001285(23):2975-2977.

Smith-Warner SA, Spiegelman D, Yaun SS, et al. Intake of fruits and vegetables and risk of breast cancer: a pooled analysis of cohort studies. JAMA 2001285(6):769-776.

Zhang S, Hunter DJ, Forman MR, et al. Dietary carotenoids and vitamins A, C, and E and risk of breast cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 199991(6):547-556.

Bell MC, Crowley-Nowick P, Bradlow HL, et al. Placebo-controlled trial of indole-3-carbinol in the treatment of CIN. Gynecologic Oncology 200078(2):123-129.

Epplein M, Wilkens LR, Tiirikainen M, et al. Urinary isothiocyanates glutathione S-transferase M1, T1, and P1 polymorphisms and risk of colorectal cancer: the Multiethnic Cohort Study. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 200918(1):314-320.

London SJ, Yuan JM, Chung FL, et al. Isothiocyanates, glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 polymorphisms, and lung-cancer risk: a prospective study of men in Shanghai, China. Lancet 2000356(9231):724-729.

Yang G, Gao YT, Shu XO, et al. Isothiocyanate exposure, glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms, and colorectal cancer risk. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 201091(3):704-711.


Cancer-Fighting Beans May Reduce Your Cancer Risk

Certain fruits and vegetables and other plant foods get plenty of recognition for being good sources of antioxidants, but beans often are unfairly left out of the picture. Some beans, particularly pinto and red kidney beans, are outstanding sources of antioxidants and should be included in your anti-cancer diet. Beans also contain fiber, which may also help reduce your risk of cancer, according to the American Cancer Society.