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Is it possible to have raw ngs data to practice

Is it possible to have raw ngs data to practice


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I'm looking for raw human ngs data to practice in bioinformatics. Better if it is from different machines (illumina, roche, pacsbio, etc). Panels, exomes and genomes. Anyone knows something?


At least PacBio do provide some example datasets on their DevNet resource. You should be able to get a lot of different Illumina data from the public data in BaseSpace. I am not sure where to look for official samples from Roche 454, but I wouldn't bother too much as it is discontinued anyway. Rather go for MinIon or IonTorrent data, if you want more.


What's a Good Biology SAT Subject Test Score in 2021?

  • Ph.D., English, University of Pennsylvania
  • M.A., English, University of Pennsylvania
  • B.S., Materials Science & Engineering and Literature, MIT

In general, you're going to want a Biology SAT Subject Test Score in the 700s for highly selective colleges and universities. A lower score won't exclude you from serious consideration, but the majority of admitted students will have scores of 700 or higher.

Subject Tests Discontinued in 2021

As of January, 2021, the College Board will no longer offer SAT Subject Tests in the U.S. Any students registered for a Subject Test will have their registration canceled and fee refunded. Outside of the U.S., students can take Subject Tests through the June 2021 administration of the exams.


National Adjustment 2011 FAQ

List of abbreviations used in these Frequently Asked Questions:

CNMI Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands
CONUS Conterminous United States
CORS Continuously Operating Reference Stations
FGDC Federal Geographic Data Committee
GNSS Global Navigation Satellite System
GPS Global Positioning System
HTDP Horizontal Time-Dependent Positioning (NGS software)
IGS International GNSS Service
MYCS Multi-Year CORS Solution
NA2011 National Adjustment of 2011
NAD 27 North American Datum of 1927
NAD 83 North American Datum of 1983
NAVD 88 North American Vertical Datum of 1988
NADCON North American Datum CONversion (NGS software)
NGS National Geodetic Survey
NGSIDB National Geodetic Survey Integrated Data Base
OPUS Online Positioning User Service
VERTCON VERTical CONversion (NGS software)

Questions added on November 8, 2011:

1. The National Adjustment of 2011 Project is abbreviated "NA2011 Project" or "NA2011." It is a nationwide, geometric adjustment of passive stations, with positions determined using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) technology, which includes the Global Positioning System (GPS). NA2011 is called "geometric," because it will yield new values for latitude, longitude, and ellipsoid height it will NOT affect the orthometric heights of stations. However, a future nationwide vertical adjustment is being considered to determine GNSS-derived orthometric heights, based on the results of NA2011. (Additional information on this is provided in the questions below).

2. NGS has performed a reanalysis of Continuously Operating Reference Station (CORS) data, in conjunction with an international effort coordinated by the International GNSS Service (IGS). This reanalysis, known as the Multi-Year CORS Solution (MYCS), has yielded new geometric coordinates and velocities on CORS using data from 1994 through the present. For NGS products and services to be mutually aligned, it is necessary to perform an adjustment (constrained to the new MYCS coordinates) of as many of the GNSS vectors held in the NGS Integrated Data Base (NGSIDB) as possible. These vectors represent GNSS observations between passive stations, and between passive stations and CORS (i.e., active stations). The vectors that are tied to CORS will make it possible to determine new coordinates on passive control consistent with the MYCS. More information on the MYCS is available on the NGS CORS Coordinates and MYCS FAQ web pages.

3. The terms "adjustment" and "readjustment" are, for all practical purposes, synonymous. Other terms, such as "improvement" and "update" are also applicable. NGS has traditionally leaned toward the term "adjustment" for projects updating the coordinates of multiple points simultaneously, because the process is via a statistical tool called a "least squares adjustment." The use of "re" implies a second adjustment, setting a poor precedent and begging the question of whether the next project should be a "re-readjustment." Moreover, NA2011 contains approximately 30 percent more vectors than the 2007 National Readjustment (nearly all of these additional vectors are from projects performed since the November 2005 cutoff for the 2007 project). Because NA2011 includes substantially more vectors than the 2007 project, it represents a new set of observations and in that sense be considered essentially a new adjustment. For these reasons, NGS has chosen to simplify matters, calling the NA2011 Project an "adjustment."

4. Please see the previous question. For the NAD 83(NSRS2007) National Readjustment, NGS had not considered the confusion that might be caused by using the term "readjustment," rather than simply "adjustment."

5. A passive station is, in NGS terminology, a "conventional" ground station, e.g., a brass disk set in a substantial structure, a steel rod driven vertically into the ground to refusal, or other such stable physical marks that can be occupied with survey equipment. An active station is a GNSS antenna (and associated receiver) in a fixed location, such as a CORS.

6. NGS' goal had been to complete the adjustment phase of the NA2011 Project by the end of calendar year 2011. But final results will be officially released later (target of June 30, 2012), to allow time for updates of all affected NGS products and services (such as a new hybrid geoid model, as discussed in question #20). Because there are numerous technical and logistical challenges in executing a project of this magnitude, it is difficult to estimate the time necessary to accomplish all the required tasks. Rather than set an exact date, project completion will instead be governed by when criteria for quality and completeness-both for the adjustment itself and for its implementation-have been met. Updates to the Project time line will be posted on the NGS website.

7. No. The NA2011 Project will update coordinates within the geometric reference frames (previously referred to as "horizontal datums") which NGS already defines and maintains. There are three of these geometric frames, all named "NAD 83," but with each affixed to either the North American, Pacific, or Mariana tectonic plates, accordingly. (Please see the following questions for more information on frames fixed to different tectonic plates). The proper terminology is to refer to the new sets of coordinates on CORS and passive control as new "realizations" of these three existing reference frames.

8. This is a highly complicated, but frequently overlooked topic, relevant to the names of the new realizations that will follow the MYCS and NA2011 Projects. Specifically, NGS currently defines and maintains three different reference frames, each affixed to a different tectonic plate. The most recent realizations of these, prior to the completion of MYCS and NA2011 are:

North American Plate: NAD 83(CORS96) active control

NAD 83(NSRS2007) passive control
Pacific Plate: NAD 83(PACP00) active control

NAD 83(1993) passive control (Hawaii)

NAD 83(2002) passive control (American Samoa)
Mariana Plate: NAD 83(MARP00) active control

NAD 83(2002) passive control

9. Both the MYCS and the NA2011 Project will provide coordinates for the 2011 realizations of the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83), affixed to each of three tectonic plates. (Please see the previous question). The names of these new realizations are:

North American Plate:
NAD 83(2011) active and passive control
Pacific Plate:
NAD 83(PA11) active and passive control
Mariana Plate:
NAD 83(MA11) active and passive control

The parenthetical portion (2011, PA11, or MA11) of the realization titles is also referred to as the "datum tag." The same datum tag is used for both active and passive control, because the MYCS is the basis for NA2011 passive control, and the realizations will be consistent enough with one another to remove the necessity for different datum tags. To fully specify the realization, the name (and datum tag) should be followed by an epoch date, for example "NAD 83(2011) epoch 2010.00." The epoch date is described in more detail in a later question.

10. Yes. NA2011 will yield coordinates for all areas where acceptable results are obtained for GNSS passive control tied to CORS included in the MYCS. However, as mentioned in the previous question, the datum tag used for the station coordinates will depend on the tectonic plate used as a fixed reference frame. Three fixed-plate reference frames are currently defined by NGS, and they will be used for both active and passive control with the following naming conventions:

a. " NAD 83(2011) epoch 2010.00" is the realization of the reference frame fixed to the North American tectonic plate. This realization is used for the vast majority of CORS and NA2011 passive marks, and it includes all stations on, and nearly adjacent to, the North American and Caribbean tectonic plates. These stations are located in the conterminous United States (CONUS), including California, and this realization also includes Alaska, Puerto Rico, and the US Virgin Islands.

b. " NAD 83(PA11) epoch 2010.00" the realization of the reference frame fixed to the Pacific tectonic plate, and it consists of stations located in Hawaii and American Samoa.

c. " NAD 83(MA11) epoch 2010.00" " is the realization of the reference frame fixed to the Mariana tectonic plate, and it consists of stations located in Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI).

The NA2011 stations referenced to the Pacific and Mariana plate-fixed frames will be adjusted separately from the simultaneous adjustment of the NAD 83(2011) stations referenced to the North American plate. Note that stations in the Pacific and Mariana frames were not computed in the NAD 83(NSRS2007) National Readjustment.

11. The "epoch date" is the date associated with the coordinates of a control station. An epoch date is a necessary part of a complete datum or reference frame name, because coordinates can change with time (i.e., they often have non-zero velocities relative to some chosen, stable coordinate reference). For NA2011, the positions will be referenced to midnight January 1 of 2010 (epoch 2010.00). NGS has provided epoch dates for CORS and related products (such as OPUS) for many years, for all passive stations included in the 2007 national readjustment and for passive stations in California since 1992. This practice will continue for NA2011, and it will become more prevalent and consistent throughout NGS. Typically, the epoch date is displayed with two decimal places, although this may vary depending on the application. If the velocity of a station is known, then its position can be computed at different epochs thus one datum tag may have multiple epochs. However, the accuracy of the computed position will depend on the accuracy of the published velocity, which varies by station and location. Epoch dates on some stations may also change without changing the datum tag, if a local episodic event (such as an earthquake) occurs, requiring a local adjustment to determine new positions. In summary, when providing coordinates, epoch dates are needed, along with the datum tag, to accommodate the precision of GNSS measurements and to recognize the dynamic nature of the Earth and its effect on coordinates.

12. In 2007, the use of separate datum tags was chosen to reflect the variety of subtle, yet significant, differences between the NSRS2007 and CORS96 realizations, despite the fact that the two realizations were very closely aligned (median values of 1 cm in horizontal and 2 cm in vertical). Unfortunately, the separate datum tags caused unnecessary confusion in the user community. For the MYCS and NA2011, NGS has chosen to use the same datum tag for both the active and passive realizations of NAD 83 in 2011. Firstly, efforts to improve consistency between passive and active stations-over and above those made in 2007-are being attempted with NA2011. Secondly, NGS hopes to avoid the confusion caused by the 2007 naming choices. It is NGS' intention to have one realization, accessed primarily through the active control, and secondarily through passive control, but with only one realization of NAD 83 at a time (per tectonic plate).

13. Yes. The CORS and CORS96 datum tags refer to the same realization of NAD 83, and CORS96 is the official datum tag for that realization. NAD 83(CORS) has been displayed on NGS datasheets for CORS to accommodate the fixed format of the datasheet. Note that for other NGS products (such as those associated with OPUS), this realization is displayed as NAD 83(CORS96). Furthermore, NGS has displayed NAD 83(PACP00) and NAD 83(MARP00) coordinates on CORS stations as "NAD 83(CORS)," as well, further confusing the situation. This will be remedied at the conclusion of the MYCS project.

14. GNSS observations (vectors) for all passive control stations in the NGS Integrated Data Base (NGSIDB) as of March 29, 2012 that are connected (directly or indirectly) to CORS with MYCS coordinates have been included in the Project (the observation dates for these vectors span from April 12, 1983 through December 21, 2011). However, being "included in the project" only assures the observations will be evaluated for their possible inclusion in the final adjustment. As with any survey control network adjustment, observations that do not "fit" well with other observations (i.e., "outliers") will be rejected. In some cases, this may result in passive control stations being excluded from NA2011, in which case they will retain their previous datum tag. Projects received by NGS through March 29, 2012 will be published with NAD 83(NSRS2007) coordinates until NA2011 is completed, at which time they will be published with NAD 83(2011) coordinates. Stations in the Pacific or Mariana tectonic plate areas will continue to use the most recently available NAD 83 realizations until NA2011 is complete. After NA2011 is completed, those projects received after March 29, 2012 will be individually adjusted to the new realization in the order received and published on NAD 83(2011), NAD 83(PA11), or NAD 83(MA11), epoch 2010.00, as the location warrants.

15. First, consult with NGS through the appropriate NGS State Geodetic Advisor or NGS headquarters personnel to ensure your project meets NGS requirements for projects performed during this time frame. (NGS contact information is available here ). When performing the constrained adjustments, unless advised differently by NGS personnel, hold NAD 83(NSRS2007) coordinates for all published passive control and NAD 83(CORS96) coordinates for all CORS in the survey (for survey projects located on, or nearly adjacent to, the North American tectonic plate).

16. Yes, those stations will have network and local accuracies computed and published, along with the NAD 83(2011, or PA11, or MA11) epoch 2010.00 coordinates. As with the NA2011 Project itself, the horizontal and ellipsoid height accuracies will be provided in centimeters at the 95 percent confidence level, in accordance with the Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Geospatial Positioning Accuracy Standards , Part 1.

17. All CORS with NGS-archived GNSS data were included in the MYCS. The only CORS not included are those with no archived data, and they consist of only a small number of stations belonging to the now defunct Cooperative CORS category. Of these, the only CORS excluded were decommissioned prior to becoming part of the NGS CORS network and did not provide their historic GNSS data to NGS. Because the Cooperative CORS program is no longer in effect, all currently operating CORS are simply "CORS," and they are all included in the MYCS. A list of previously-operating CORS not used in the MYCS is available here .

18. It is likely that most, but not all, CORS with MYCS coordinates will be constrained for NA2011. The reason for this is that there are two categories of MYCS coordinates. The first category is for CORS (and IGS) sites with velocities computed from the GNSS observations at the CORS site itself. This requires processing of at least 2.5 years of data for the site, and NGS expects that all CORS in this category will be constrained for NA2011. For the second category of sites not meeting this criterion, there is not enough data to compute accurate velocities, so the velocities are modeled using the NGS Horizontal Time-Dependent Positioning (HTDP) software. These modeled HTDP velocities are also used to transform the coordinates of the sites from the mean time of the dataset to a common reference time (epoch). Because these MYCS coordinates are (in part) modeled, it is likely that at least some of them will not be constrained for NA2011. The determination of which CORS will be constrained in the final adjustment will be based on an analysis of the results. Regardless of whether or not CORS are constrained, none will be assigned new published coordinates based on NA2011 the published coordinates will continue to be from the MYCS.

19. Results from the MYCS provide insight into the positional changes between NAD 83(NSRS2007) and NAD 83(2011) epoch 2010.00. Note that, in making this comparison, NGS is treating NAD 83(CORS96) epoch 2002.00 as a proxy for NAD 83(NSRS2007), which is appropriate, as NAD 83(CORS96) was the basis for NAD 83(NSRS2007). Based on the preliminary MYCS results, the mean expected change is about 2 cm horizontally and 1 cm vertically (i.e., ellipsoid height). However, these changes-particularly the horizontal changes-vary significantly. In addition, the largest part of the horizontal change is due to propagation of positional velocities over the epoch difference, especially in tectonically active areas, such as California. When compared at a common epoch date (2002.00), the mean horizontal change decreases to only 0.2 cm. It is important to note that the coordinate changes are not evenly distributed across a region, and that shifts of many centimeters are expected to occur in some areas. Users are strongly encouraged to view the shifts in their locale by going to FAQ #6 on the NGS MYCS FAQ web page for a better indication of the coordinate changes at individual CORS.

20. Yes, a new hybrid geoid model (GEOID12) will be produced, and preliminary activities in this regard are currently underway. Development of this model first requires completion of NA2011, so that NAD 83(2011) ellipsoid heights are available for North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88) leveled control stations that have also been positioned in NA2011. NGS has decided that our user community would be best served if GEOID12 is released simultaneously with NA2011. It is mainly for this reason that the official release date of NA2011 will be postponed until GEOID12 is completed (target of June 30, 2012), as mentioned in question #6. However, if the development of GEOID12 is excessively delayed for some unforeseen reason, NA2011 may be released prior to completion of GEOID12. As with the NA2011 Project itself, completion of GEOID12 will be determined by meeting quality and completeness criteria rather than a deadline.

21. Possibly. NGS will investigate the need for, and feasibility of, performing a nationwide vertical adjustment of all GNSS-derived orthometric heights in the NSRS. If performed, the GNSS-derived orthometric heights determined for all stations in the vertical adjustment would be consistent with NAD 83(2011) epoch 2010.00 and GEOID12, and would be referenced to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88) for CONUS and Alaska. If pursued, this project would likely encompass similar orthometric adjustments in other US territories, tied to their regional datums (if they exist).

22. Most, but not all, of the NAD 83(2011) stations have very small, more-or-less randomly oriented horizontal velocities (on the order of 1 to 2 mm/year), because most are located on the stable part of the North American tectonic plate. However, stations located in tectonically active areas, and/or on other plates, may have significant velocities. The largest NAD 83(2011) velocities (exceeding 50 mm/year) occur in southwestern California on the Pacific plate (i.e., on, and west of, the San Andreas fault system). Other stations with considerable velocities occur along the Pacific Northwest coast of the United States (approximately 15 mm/yr) and south-central Alaska (up to 40 mm/yr). Stations located in Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands also have fairly large NAD 83(2011) velocities (about 20 mm/yr), since they are located on the Caribbean tectonic plate.

23. A vast majority of the station coordinates determined in NA2011 will be referenced to a frame fixed to the North American tectonic plate, and these will be denoted as NAD 83(2011). As stated in the previous question, most of these stations will have velocities of nearly zero relative to this frame. Similarly, users of NGS control far away from North America (such as Hawaii) typically prefer the coordinates change with time as little as possible. It is for this reason NGS developed reference frames fixed to the Pacific and Mariana plates, so the control coordinates would have local velocities of nearly zero. Otherwise, if the coordinates for Pacific and Mariana regions are referenced to NAD 83(2011), the velocities would be quite large (for example, approximately 80 mm/year in Hawaii, 40 mm/year in CNMI, and 25 mm/year in Guam).

24. Yes. The NGS Horizontal Time-Dependent Positioning (HTDP) software can be used to convert coordinates between the North American, Pacific, and Mariana tectonic plates. HTDP can also be used to compute coordinates referenced to different time frames (i.e., at different epoch dates). Thus, a user will be able to convert, for example, North American plate NAD 83(2011) epoch 2010.00 coordinates to Pacific plate NAD 83(PA11) coordinates at the same or different epoch date. The algorithms already exist in HTDP to perform these transformations, and the reference frame names used by HTDP will be updated to match the new MYCS and NA2011 naming convention used in these FAQs.

25. Any passive station that does not have acceptable GNSS data will be excluded from NA2011, as will stations that are not (directly or indirectly) connected to a CORS in the MYCS. For passive stations meeting these criteria, NGS intends to provide NAD 83(2011), NAD 83(PA11), and NAD 83(MA11) coordinates at epoch 2010.00 everywhere that is appropriate and can be determined accurately with respect to the MYCS. Stations not included in NA2011 will continue to have their positions referenced to the realization indicated by the datum tag currently on NGS datasheets (i.e., prior to the publication of NA2011 results).

26. The answer to this question is entirely dependent upon whether an acceptable GNSS survey is ever performed at that passive control mark. For non-GNSS (i.e., "classically" determined) control, the most accurate way to determine coordinates consistent with a modern realization of NAD 83 is to resurvey using geodetic-quality GNSS data.

27. A list of coordinate changes, from NAD 83(NSRS2007) epoch 2002.00 to NAD 83(2011) epoch 2010.00 will be provided to the public. Coordinate changes will also be provided between the current NAD 83 realizations for the Pacific and Mariana tectonic plate regions and NA2011 results. These coordinate changes will be provided simultaneously with the release of NA2011 results.

28. For the purposes of transforming the official coordinates of each geodetic control point, NGS does not recommend the use of simple transformation models, unless the coordinate shifts are sufficiently systematic over large areas. Interpolative transformation tools, such as NADCON and VERTCON , function only to apply gross consistent shifts to entire areas. The original version of NADCON provides a transformation between the North American Datum of 1927 (NAD 27) and the original (1986) realization of NAD 83. This transformation yields systematic shifts of dozens of meters across the country that can be applied to small scale products such as USGS topographic maps and regional GIS datasets. With continuing refinements of NAD 83, the coordinate changes have decreased to the centimeter level and have become less regionally systematic. One consequence of this is that the formal error of the coordinate shifts may be of similar magnitude as the shifts themselves, and NGS is concerned that such transformation models could be misused, should they be provided. Such transformations could actually be a disservice to our customers, by degrading the spatial accuracy of the data and misleading people into a false sense of complacency about such transformed datasets. The MYCS provides an indication of the expected irregularity of the coordinate and height changes for NA2011 maps of these changes may be viewed under FAQ #6 on the NGS MYCS FAQ web page.

Despite the challenging technical issues with developing interpolative datum transformation models, NGS is committed to providing tools and guidance to help our broad community of users satisfactorily and correctly reference their geospatial data to the NSRS. Toward that end, NGS will actively pursue the following actions.

a. As stated in the previous question, NGS will continue to provide coordinate difference datasets whenever new datum realizations are defined. This will allow surveyors and others who work with raw observations tied to geodetic control to continue to follow best practices.

b. NGS will perform a scientific investigation centering on the possibility of producing transformation models, akin to such products as NADCON and VERTCON. It will include analyses of methods for separating signal from noise, determination of the potential errors involved in using such transformations, and comparisons to the best practice of returning to original control. The study will consider the transformation between NAD 83(NSRS2007) and the previous NAD 83 realizations, as well as between NAD 83(NSRS2007) and NAD 83(2011, PA11, and MA11) epoch 2010.00.

c. NGS will produce useful guidance about datums, datum realizations, the use and misuse of transformation grids, and pitfalls of misidentified geodetic control (i.e., the importance of correctly identifying the actual datum and datum realization of a dataset prior to invoking a transformation).

Questions added on November 8, 2011:

29. NGS will continue to accept projects referenced to NAD 83(NSRS2007) for two months following the date the NA2011 project is officially released (i.e., once the new NAD 83 coordinates are published on the datasheets). During this two-month transition period, NGS will also accept projects referenced to the NAD 83(2011, PA11, and MA11) realizations.

30. Yes, the version of the NGS program ADJUST used to perform the adjustments will change. ADJUST will be modified to have a graphical user interface, compute local and network accuracies, and provide additional more "user friendly" output. Different procedures and input will also be required for using ADJUST, as well as different checking and analysis programs for ADJUST output. However, once NA2011 is complete, NGS will accept projects referenced to the NAD 83(2011, PA11, or MA11) realizations using the version of ADJUST available at that time, even if the procedures (and other modifications) to ADJUST associated with NA2011 are not yet finalized.

31. Projects submitted after March 29, 2012 will be published as soon as NGS has verified the project is acceptable. Station datasheets will have positions referenced to NAD 83(NSRS2007), as provided by the submitter. Once the 2011 adjustment is completed, NGS will adjust those projects to provide NAD 83(2011) epoch 2010.00 coordinates and update the datasheets.

32. No, NGS will not constrain NA2011 to coordinates determined by the CSRC for continuously operating GNSS base stations in California. The main reason for this is that CSRC coordinates are referenced to an epoch date of 2011.00 based on the previous NAD 83(NSRS2007) realization. In addition, the CSRC coordinates were processed independently by CSRC and SOPAC (Scripps Orbit and Permanent Array Center), and so they are not part of the simultaneous processing performed by NGS for the MYCS. In addition, the CSRC/SOPAC solution is based on a different global reference frame (ITRF 2005), GNSS orbits, and (importantly) GNSS antenna models. As such, the CSRS coordinates are inconsistent with the MYCS constraints used for NA2011 and thus cannot be reliably used for NA2011. Please visit the CSRC website for additional information.

33. Yes, NGS will provide NA2011 results in the so-called Readjustment Distribution Format (RDF), which was developed for the initial release of NSRS2007 adjustment results. This format has been added to the official NGS "Bluebook" data format, and so it is no longer referred to by the name "RDF" (although many NGS documents and web pages still use that name). The addition to the Bluebook format consist of three new record types for network accuracies, local accuracies, and variance factors (the *91*, *92*, and *93* records, respectively). Details are given in NGS Bluebook Chapter 2, Horizontal Control Data, pages 2-87 through 2-89 (note that the "RDF" name is not used in the Bluebook).


What Are the Average SAT Subject Test Scores?

Good SAT Subject Test scores tend to be a fair deal higher than good scores on the general SAT since high academic achievers tend to take the Subject Tests.

The following chart shows the three-year average (2018-2020) for each SAT Subject Test. For a full breakdown of what these average scores mean, check out this article.

See how the average score for Chinese with Listening is an incredibly high 760? The average for Math Level I looks like a more reasonable 614.

So a "good" score would be higher than average, maybe even in the top 25% of test takers, or top 5% if you're shooting for the Ivy League.

Based on these averages, a score of 700 could mean completely different things depending on the test. It would be a strong score on the Literature test but slightly below average on Math Level II. And on the Korean with Listening test, a 700 would be way below average.

Now that you have a sense of the average scores for each test and why they matter for your percentile, let's look at the most recent score percentiles.


Why should you collect and analyze data for your evaluation?

Part of the answer here is that not every organization – particularly small community-based or non-governmental ones – will necessarily have extensive resources to conduct a formal evaluation. They may have to be content with less formal evaluations, which can still be extremely helpful in providing direction for a program or intervention. An informal evaluation will involve some data gathering and analysis. This data collection and sensemaking is critical to an initiative and its future success, and has a number of advantages.

  • The data can show whether there was any significant change in the dependent variable(s) you hoped to influence. Collecting and analyzing data helps you see whether your intervention brought about the desired results

The term “significance” has a specific meaning when you’re discussing statistics. The level of significance of a statistical result is the level of confidence you can have in the answer you get. Generally, researchers don’t consider a result significant unless it shows at least a 95% certainty that it’s correct (called the .05 level of significance, since there’s a 5% chance that it’s wrong). The level of significance is built into the statistical formulas: once you get a mathematical result, a table (or the software you’re using) will tell you the level of significance.

Thus, if data analysis finds that the independent variable (the intervention) influenced the dependent variable at the .05 level of significance, it means there’s a 95% probability or likelihood that your program or intervention had the desired effect. The .05 level is generally considered a reasonable result, and the .01 level (99% probability) is considered about as close to certainty as you are likely to get. A 95% level of certainty doesn’t mean that the program works on 95% of participants, or that it will work 95% of the time. It means that there’s only a 5% possibility that it isn’t actually what’s influencing the dependent variable(s) and causing the changes that it seems to be associated with.

  • They can uncover factors that may be associated with changes in the dependent variable(s). Data analyses may help discover unexpected influences for instance, that the effort was twice as large for those participants who also were a part of a support group. This can be used to identify key aspects of implementation.
  • They can show connections between or among various factors that may have an effect on the results of your evaluation. Some types of statistical procedures look for connections (“correlations” is the research term) among variables. Certain dependent variables may change when others do. These changes may be similar – i.e., both variables increase or decrease (e.g., as children’s proficiency at reading increases, the amount of reading they do also increases). Or the opposite may be observed – i.e. the two variables change in opposite directions (as the amount of exercise they engage in increases, peoples’ weight decreases). Correlations don’t mean that one variable causes another, or that they both have the same cause, but they can provide valuable information about associations to expect in an evaluation.
  • They can help shed light on the reasons that your work was effective or, perhaps, less effective than you’d hoped. By combining quantitative and qualitative analysis, you can often determine not only what worked or didn’t, but why. The effect of cultural issues, how well methods are used, the appropriateness of your approach for the population – these as well as other factors that influence success can be highlighted by careful data collection and analysis. This knowledge gives you a basis for adapting and changing what you do to make it more likely you’ll achieve the desired outcomes in the future.
  • They can provide you with credible evidence to show stakeholders that your program is successful, or that you’ve uncovered, and are addressing limitations. Stakeholders, such as funders and community boards, want to know their investments are well spent. Showing evidence of intermediate outcomes (e.g. new programs and policies) and longer-term outcomes (e.g., improvements in education or health indicators) is becoming increasingly important to receiving – and retaining – funding.
  • Their use shows that you’re serious about evaluation and about improving your work. Being a good trustee or steward of community investment includes regular review of data regarding progress and improvement.
  • They can show the field what you’re learning, and thus pave the way for others to implement successful methods and approaches. In that way, you’ll be helping to improve community efforts and, ultimately, quality of life for people who benefit.

Setting a Target Scaled Score for an SAT Subject Test

To reiterate what we've gone over so far, each SAT Subject Test is equated to give you a final scaled score on a scale of 200-800. The SAT Subject Test score you should aim for ultimately depends on what scores the schools you're applying to are looking for.

To figure out what your goal score should be, look up the average or recommended SAT Subject Test scores of admitted applicants for each of your schools. For example, if you're applying to the Ivy League, this guide goes over the scores you should aim for on each Subject Test (depending on your major). You can also look up SAT score info on schools' official websites or contact schools' admissions offices and ask them what you should aim for.

Note that more and more schools merely recommend SAT Subject Test scores and don't require them. That said, if you're applying to a highly selective school, you should still try to submit Subject Test scores since a high score can greatly boost your chances of admission.

If you can't find exact score data for a school, estimate what score you'll need to get based on how selective the institution is. Competitive schools generally want to see SAT Subject Test scores in at least the 700s—sometimes 750+.

Once you've filled out your chart, look for the highest score on it. This will be your goal (scaled) score for that SAT Subject Test. Get this score, and you'll have an excellent shot at getting into all the schools you're applying to. In the example above, a perfect 800 would give you your best shot at getting into these top-tier schools.

But what raw score should you aim for on your SAT Subject Test?


From Disease to Genes and Back

Human genetics explores the genetically determined similarities and differences between human beings. This scientific discipline encompasses a variety of related fields such as molecular genetics, genomics, population genetics and medical genetics. Study of human genetics can help to find answers to questions regarding the inheritance and development of different human phenotypes. The field of medical genetics is quickly growing and dynamically developing thanks to the new technologies such as the next-generation sequencing.

Most human diseases have a genetic component. This genetic component varies by disease. Some rare diseases appear to be completely determined by the genome, whereas more common diseases arise from a complex interplay of many genes, the environment and chance. The understanding of how our genomes contribute to disease susceptibility offers the prospect of large gains: it may guide disease diagnostics and prognostics and help in developing new therapies. The overall goal of this course is to describe how the researchers find genes responsible for different diseases and how this information is used to better understand and fight these diseases. You will learn about current approaches for finding single genetic variants underlying monogenic (Mendelian) diseases and sets of variants responsible for more complex, multifactorial ones. Furthermore, you will learn how the identification of these genetic variants makes it possible to understand how the affected biological pathways lead to disease development. During the final week of the course, we will talk more about clinical applications of the genetic findings. Upon completing the course, you will be able to: - give examples of monogenic and complex disorders - recognise patterns of Mendelian inheritance of monogenic diseases - understand and describe principles and methods of gene mapping - describe the main steps and principles of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) - give examples of modern technologies that are currently used to find variants underlying human diseases - discuss the approaches to finding causative variants underlying complex disorders - discuss the possibilities and areas of application of genetic findings.


There are always other ways to do things in programming, so yes, there is certainly a way to open Minecraft without using it's launcher.

The thing with a launcher is, it does not slow the process of launching down, it only does the necessary steps to launch a game.

Not using the launcher and opening Minecraft with raw code won't make the process faster and might corrupt your game. It is not recommended.

Not sure if this is what you're looking for but MultiMC is an open-source alternative to the normal Minecraft launcher. I've been using it for about a year and it works very nicely.

MultiMC has many additional config options & features over the normal Minecraft launcher, most notably the ability to run multiple versions of Minecraft with seperate .minecraft instances.


Abstract

The main focus of this pilot study is to develop a statistical approach that is suitable to model data obtained by different detection methods. The methods used in this study examine the possibility to detect early breast cancer (BC) by exhaled breath and urine samples analysis.

Exhaled breath samples were collected from 48 breast cancer patients and 45 healthy women that served as a control group. Urine samples were collected from 37 patients who were diagnosed with breast cancer based on physical or mammography tests prior to any surgery, and from 36 healthy women. Two commercial electronic noses (ENs) were used for the exhaled breath analysis. Urine samples were analyzed using Gas-Chromatography Mass-Spectrometry (GC-MS).

Statistical analysis of results is based on an artificial neural network (ANN) obtained following feature extraction and feature selection processes. The model obtained allows classification of breast cancer patients with an accuracy of 95.2% ± 7.7% using data of one EN, and an accuracy of 85% for the other EN and for urine samples.

The developed statistical analysis method enables accurate classification of patients as healthy or with BC based on simple non-invasive exhaled breath and a urine sample analysis. This study demonstrates that available commercial ENs can be used, provided that the data analysis is carried out using an appropriate scheme.


Develop Deep Learning Projects with Python!

What If You Could Develop A Network in Minutes

. with just a few lines of Python

It covers end-to-end projects on topics like:
Multilayer Perceptrons, Convolutional Nets and Recurrent Neural Nets, and more.