In details

Human Body Systems



The human body is composed of several systems

The Human Body Systems

Muscle system

- Formed by the muscles of the human body.

- Main functions: acts on body support, movement and balance of body temperature.

Nervous system

- Composed of the brain, spinal cord and various nerves.

- Main functions: environmental information processing (brain) and transmission of nerve impulses throughout the body. The brain, the main organ of the nervous system, also has the ability to store information, elaborate thoughts and produce knowledge from the information obtained. The brain is also very important in controlling various vital body functions and in the speech process.

Skeletal system

- Formed by the bones of the body.

- Main functions: support, protection and movement of the human body.

Lymphatic system

- Formed by lymph nodes, lymphatic vessels, spleen, palatine tonsils and thymus.

- Main functions: defense process of the human organism. It also acts on lymph conduction.

Respiratory system

- Composed of two lungs, two nasal cavities, pharynx, larynx, trachea and pulmonary bronchi.

- Main functions: breathing process (oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide removal).

Circulatory system

- Formed by heart, veins and arteries.

- Main functions: blood circulation through the human body. In this process, nutrients and oxygen are transported to the cells.

Urinary system

- Formed by two kidneys and urinary tract (urinary bladder, urethra and two ureters).

- Main functions: filtration of impurities. Therefore, urine production, storage and disposal by the urinary tract occurs. Along with the urine, the impurities, which have been filtered (removed from the blood) by the kidneys, are eliminated.

Digestive system

- Composed of mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestines (large and small). There are also other organs that assist in the process of digestion of food: salivary glands, teeth, liver and pancreas.

- Main function: food digestion process.

Endocrine System

- Composed of endocrine glands (thyroid, pituitary gland, parathyroid glands, thymus, pancreas, adrenals and sexual glands).

- Main functions: hormone production, cell metabolism and control and coordination of various body functions.

Reproductive system

- Formed by:

- Male reproductive system: two testicles, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate, urethra and penis.

- Female reproductive system: fallopian tubes, two ovaries, uterus, cervix (cervix) and vagina.

- Main functions: responsible for the reproductive process of humans.

Excretory System

- Composed mainly of the urinary system (production and elimination of urine), intestines and anus (elimination of feces).

- Main functions: elimination of elements that were not used in the digestion process. Many metabolic wastes are also eliminated by the excretory system through feces, urine and sweat.

Integumentary System

- Formed by human skin (epidermis, dermis and hypodermis).

- Main functions: body protection, exchanges between the external and internal environment of the body and maintenance of body temperature.

Immune system

- Formed by the defense cells (lymphocytes, leukocytes and macrophages), bone marrow and thymus.

- Main functions: protect the body from pathogenic microorganisms (mainly viruses and bacteria), which penetrate our body.

Last reviewed: 12/17/2018

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By Elaine Barbosa de Souza
Undergraduate student in Biological Sciences, Methodist University of São Paulo.