Other

Plant Hormones



Plant Hormones: Multiple Functions in Plants

What are

Plant hormones, also known as phytohormones, are organic compounds produced by plants and play key roles in their growth and development.

These hormones are present in small quantities and are produced in plant tissues.

Plant hormones (which are)

Auxins

Various types of auxins are produced by plants. These auxins perform various functions in plant physiology.

Auxins main functions:

- Stem and root growth - occurs through the process of stretching the plant cells. When the plant has a low amount of auxins, its roots may grow, but the stem does not develop. The high concentration of auxins can cause stem growth, leaving the roots undeveloped.

- Apical dominance - auxins made by the stem apical meristem decrease the activity of the axillary buds that are near the apex. When the apical bud is extracted from the plant, branches, leaves and lateral flowers appear.

- Tropisms - auxins act to control tropisms (movements related to plant growth according to nature stimuli). Example: phototropism (movement of plants in response to light stimuli).

- Fruit production and development - auxins are produced in seeds, enabling the formation of fruits by the ovary.

- Fall of old leaves - As they have a low concentration of auxins, the old leaves fall from the plant.

- Root formation - The roots that sprout at the base of the stem. This process is generated by the presence of auxins.

Cytokines

They are the plant hormones made in the roots and transported throughout the body of the vegetable. They act in the differentiation and division of plant cells, development of roots and lateral buds. These hormones are also important for delaying vegetable aging.

Gibberellins

They are made from meristems, new leaves and fruits of plants. The function of these hormones is to stimulate the stretching and division of the plant cell. They also act in flower production, leaf development and seed germination.

Ethylene

This phythormonium is a gas manufactured in various parts of the plant. It acts in the ripening of the fruits and in the process of loss of the leaves of the vegetables.

Abscysic Acid

Hormone made by the leaves, stem and root apex of plants. It is very important for stem development. It is also responsible for inhibiting seed germination. In cases of water stress (lack of water), this hormone performs various processes in the plant causing it to decrease water loss, thus maintaining the hydration necessary for its survival.