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Types of Plant Roots



Tabular roots of a fig tree

Introduction

Each plant has a specific type of adaptation to the conditions of the ecological system in which it lives. The roots, for example, have special adaptations so that the plant can develop properly.

Root types (root adaptations):

Tabular Roots

They have two important functions in the plant: they help in fixing to the ground, besides acting as respiratory roots. These roots are gone from the union of the stem with the root branches. They are present mainly in large trees.

Examples of plants: xixá (terculia chicha) and fig tree.

Support roots

They are those that have the function of balancing and supporting the plant. They are areas and very common in regions of marshy soil and mangroves.

Plant Examples: pandanus and corn.

Tuberous Roots

These roots also act as a starch (carbohydrate) reserve site.

Examples of plants: carrots, sweet potatoes, turnips, beets and cassava.

Strangling Roots

They are common in some epiphyte plants. These roots, which are aerial, develop toward the ground, surrounding the trunk of another plant (host). As they grow, they promote strangling of the host's stem in order to obtain the elaborate sap. Generally, the host plant dies in this process for lack of sap.

Examples of plants: figs, woodpecker and araçá.

Sucking Roots

They are parasitic plants that have thin roots. These have the ability to penetrate the stem of the host plant in order to extract their nutrients (sap).

Examples of plants: lead vines and chickweed.

Respiratory roots

They are aerial roots, typical of regions whose soil is oxygen deficient (mainly mangroves). Very small holes (pneumatodes) are present in these roots, where aeration occurs (gas exchange with the environment).

Example plant: Black Mangrove (schauerian avicennia).