13.20: Cerego- Animal Diversity - Biology

13.20: Cerego- Animal Diversity - Biology

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It is tempting to view different topics as completely separate, but in fact the ideas we cover in this course are often connected to one another. Using this practice set can help you do well both in this module and as you move through the course.

Click here to view the practice set for Animal Diversity. You’ll need to create a free log-in to practice these items, if you haven’t already.

Taxonomy Strategies LLC Benchmarking Your Search Function A

Taxonomy Strategies LLC Benchmarking Your Search Function: A Metadata Maturity Model Ron Daniel, Jr. Taxonomy Strategies LLC May 17, 2005 Copyright 2005 Taxonomy Strategies LLC. All rights reserved.

Motivating Experiences § Different organizations have different levels of sophistication in their planning, execution, and follow-up for CMS, Search, Portal, Metadata, and Taxonomy projects. § Last year we had back-to-back engagements with clients who had very different levels of sophistication. § Tool Vendors continue to provide ever-more capable tools with ever-more sophisticated features. § We live in a world where a significant fraction of public, commercial, web pages don’t have a <title> tag. § Organizations that can’t manage <title> tags stand a very poor chance of putting an entity extractor to use, which requires some management of the lists of entities to be extracted. § Taxonomy governance processes must fit the organization § In terms of scale and complexity Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information 2

Desiderata § Wanted a method to: § Predict likely sources of problems in engagements § Help clients identify the things they can do, and the things that stand an excellent chance of failing § Generally identify good and bad practices § These desiderata are not unique § Such methods have been defined for software development and other areas § They are known as Maturity Models Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information 3

Goals for this Talk § Provide you with basic knowledge of maturity models § Give you the tools to do a simple self-assessment of your organization’s metadata maturity § Suggest practices that are, and are not, likely next steps in your organization’s development of: § Processes to manage search, metadata, and taxonomy deployments. § Overly-sophisticated processes will fail § Expertise around search, metadata, and taxonomies § Systems to create, manage, or use metadata and taxonomies § Tool selection § Overly-sophisticated tools will be very poor value-for-money § Have some fun Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information 4

A Tale of Two Maturity Models CMMI (Capability and Maturity Model – Integrated) vs. The Joel Test TAXONOMY STRATEGIES The business of organized information 5

CMMI’s Levels of Maturity, Translated § 1) Initial: You build software like you never have done it before and will never do it again. One hero spits out code and you don't worry about maintaining or documenting it. Whatever the programmer gives you is good enough for the end users. § 2) Repeatable: You actually have a project plan, and the plan might even include some quality assurance, documentation, and things like that. § 3) Defined: You follow the plan, which is at the organizational level rather than the project level. You expect to train people, have compatible software, and follow organizational standards. Think of skilled craftsmen following a blueprint and using the standards of their trade. § 4) Managed: The organization follows the plan and measures the progress as it goes, similar to an assembly line for software. Managers know what's happening as it happens and the software is also monitored. § 5) Optimizing: The final phase is when the factory becomes self-aware. The lessons learned on the project are used to prevent defects before they occur and manage technological changes. There's a constant organized feedback mechanism to improve the cycle time and product quality. “Modeling Data Management” – A report on discussions of Metadata Maturity at the 2002 DAMA Conference Joe Celko http: //www. intelligententerprise. com/020726/512 celko 1_1. jhtml Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information 6

22 Process Areas, Keyed to 5 Maturity Levels… § Process Areas contain Specific and Generic Practices, organized by Goals and Features § Maturity Model Axioms: § A Maturity Level is not achieved until ALL the Practices in that level are in operation. § Individual processes at higher levels are AT RISK from supporting processes at lower levels. These axioms are very questionable for the Metadata Maturity Model Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information 7

CMMI Structure Previous Diagram only shows these two levels Maturity Models are collections of Practices. Main differences in Maturity Models concern: • Degree of Categorization of Practices • Descriptivist or Prescriptivist Purpose Source: http: //chrguibert. free. fr/cmmi Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information 8

CMMI Positives § Independent audits of an organization’s level of maturity are a common service § Level 3 certification frequently required in bids § “…compared with an average Level 2 program, Level 3 programs have 3. 6 times fewer latent defects, Level 4 programs have 14. 5 times fewer latent defects, and Level 5 programs have 16. 8 times fewer latent defects”. Michael Diaz and Jeff King – “How CMM Impacts Quality, Productivity, Rework, and the Bottom Line” § ‘If you find yourself involved in product liability litigation you're going to hear terms like "prevailing standard of care" and "what a reasonable member of your profession would have done". Considering the fact that well over a thousand companies world-wide have achieved level 3 or above, and the body of knowledge about the CMM is readily available, you might have some explaining to do if you claim ignorance’. Linda Zarate in a review of A Guide to the Cmm: Understanding the Capability Maturity Model for Software by Kenneth M. Dymond Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information 9

CMMI Negatives § Complexity and Expense § Reading and understanding the materials § Putting it into action – identifying processes, mapping processes to model, gathering required data, … § Audits are expensive § CMMI does not scale down well to small shops § Has been accused of restraint of trade Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information 10

At the Other Extreme, The Joel Test § Developed by Joel Spolsky as reaction to CMMI complexity § Positives - Quick, easy, and inexpensive to use. § Negatives - Doesn’t scale up well: § Not a good way to assure the quality of nuclear reactor software. § Not suitable for scaring away liability lawyers. § Not a longer-term improvement plan. The Joel Test 1. Do you use source control? 2. Can you make a build in one step? 3. Do you make daily builds? 4. Do you have a bug database? 5. Do you fix bugs before writing new code? 6. Do you have an up-to-date schedule? 7. Do you have a spec? 8. Do programmers have quiet working conditions? 9. Do you use the best tools money can buy? 10. Do you have testers? 11. Do new candidates write code during their interview? 12. Do you do hallway usability testing? Scoring: 1 point for each ‘yes’. Scores below 10 indicate serious trouble. Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information 11

A Maturity Rant, in Bullet Points § Metadata maturity may not be core to your business. § Maturity is not automatically a good thing. § Maturity is not a goal, it is a characterization of an organization’s methods for achieving its core goals. § Mature processes impose expenses which must be justified by consequent cost savings, revenue gains, or service improvements. § “Immature Processes” does not mean “can’t do good work”. It means “Good results depend on whether the company’s star performers are doing the job”. § Maturity predicts the worst that an organization might do on a job, not the best that it could do. § Nevertheless, Maturity Models are useful as collections of best practices and stages in which to try to adopt them. Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information 12

Towards a Metadata Maturity Model TAXONOMY STRATEGIES The business of organized information 13

Caveats, Disclaimers, Provisos, Exclusions, Exemptions, and Limitations on Liability § Some maturity models are based on millions of dollars of research and decades of industry experience. § This isn’t one of them. § Adjust your expectations accordingly. Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information 14

Basis for Following Materials § CEN study on commercial adoption of Dublin Core § Small-scale phone survey § Organizations which have world-class search and metadata externally § Not necessarily the most mature overall processes or the best internal search and metadata § Literature review § Client experiences Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information 15

Search and Metadata Maturity Quick Quiz Basic Is there a process in place to examine query logs? Is there a process for adding directories and content to the repository, or do people just do what they want? 3) Is there an organization-wide metadata standard, such as an extension of the Dublin Core, for use by search tools, multiple repositories, etc. ? § Intermediate 4) Is there an ongoing data cleansing procedure to look for ROT (Redundant, Obsolete, Trivial content)? 5) Does the search engine index more than 4 repositories around the organization? 6) Are system features and metadata fields added based on cost/benefit analysis, rather than things that are easy to do with the current tools? 7) Are tools only acquired after requirements have been analyzed, or are major purchases sometimes made to use up year-end money? 8) Are there hiring and training practices especially for metadata and taxonomy positions? § Advanced 9) Are there established qualitative and quantitative measures of metadata quality? 10) Can the CEO explain the ROI for search and metadata? § 1) 2) Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information 16

Baseline for Comparison 14 Responses from 35 Attendees at a Taxonomy Workshop Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information 17

Aspects of Search and Metadata Maturity “Limiting” Processes are harmful practices which interfere with maturity. We are collecting and categorizing Processes by Area and Level Process Areas Maturity Levels Basic Intermed-iate Advanced Bleeding Edge Search Capabilities Uniform Search Box Query Log Exam. Index Multiple Best Bets Simple Grouping Intranet Facet Navigation Improved Ranking Metadata and taxonomy standards System MD Stds. Organization MD Std. Reuse ERP Multipe Repos Comply Taxonomy Roadmap Tools and tool selection Requirements, then Tools Bakeoff Datasets Budget for Bakeoffs Staff training and hiring Search Analyst Role Librarian Expertise Pre-hire Testing SME Catalogers Data creation and QA CM Introduced ROT-Eliminatiion Hybrid Creation Model Adaptive Qualification Quality Measures Project management Project Plan Std. Proj. Methodol. X-Functional Teams Communication Plan Multi-Year Plan Early Termination Executive support and ROI External Search ROI Intranet ROI Model CEO knows Search ROI Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information Limiting Highly Abstract Subject Taxonomies Unneeded Capabils. Tools, then Reqs. Use it or Lose It Budgets 18

Search Capabilities Processes, Categorized by Type and Level § Basic: § “Uniform Search Box” § “Query Log Examination” § Requires reporting functions and an identified staffer § Intermediate: § “Index Multiple Repositories” § Beyond simple web spidering Highly Valuable Processes in Orange § “Best Bets” § “Simple Results Grouping” § Advanced: § “Improved Ranking from Link and Popularity Analysis” § “Intranet Facet Navigation” § See Rosenfeld’s EIA Roadmap for more details on search capabilities staged over time. Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information 19

Rosenfeld’s EIA Roadmap Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information 20

Metadata and Taxonomy Standards § Basic: § “System Metadata Standards” § Intermediate: § “Defined Organizational Metadata Standard” § “Reuse of ERP Vocabularies” § Advanced: § “Multiple Repositories Comply with Metadata Standard” § “Taxonomy Roadmap” § A plan for adding facets over time, based on known upcoming projects which can use them. § Requires “Multi-Year Plan of Upcoming Projects” § Bleeding Edge: § “Highly Abstract Subject Taxonomies” § e. g. categorization by Mood & Emotion Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information 21

“Organizational Metadata Standard” - How is Dublin Core extended? Base: 20 corporate information managers CEN/ISSS Workshop on Dublin Core – Guidance information for the deployment of Dublin Core metadata in Corporate Environments Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information 22

Tools and Tool Selection § Limiting: § “Use of Unneeded Tool Capabilities” § e. g. autogenerated keywords § “Tools, then Requirements” § Related to “Use it or Lose it Budgeting” § Basic: § “Purpose, then Requirements, then Tools” § Intermediate: § “Datasets for Product Evaluations” § Advanced: § “Budgeted Evaluations”* Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information 23

Staff Training and Hiring § Basic: § “Search Analyst Role” § Related to “Query Log Examination” § Intermediate: § “Adding and Appointing Library Expertise” § Advanced: § “Pre-Hire Testing” § Bleeding Edge § “Hiring Subject Matter Experts for Cataloging” Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information 24

Data Creation and QA § Basic: § “Content Management Introduced” § Intermediate: § “ROT-Elimination” § Advanced: § “Hybrid Metadata Creation Models” § Bleeding Edge: § “Adaptive Qualification of End-User Feedback” § “Qualitative and Quantitative Measures of Metadata Quality”* * Hypothetical, not yet observed in survey participants Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information 25

Methods used to create & maintain metadata: Note that Automation ≠ Maturity Base: 20 corporate information managers CEN/ISSS Workshop on Dublin Core – Guidance information for the deployment of Dublin Core metadata in Corporate Environments Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information 26

Project Management § Basic: § “Project Plan” § Intermediate: § “Standard Project Methodology” § “Cross-functional Teams” § “Communication Plan” § “Multi-Year Plan of Upcoming Projects” § Advanced: § “Early Termination of Projects” § See Enterprise Search Report for much more on managing a search project. Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information 27

Executive Support and ROI § Limiting: § “Use It or Lose It Budgeting” § Basic: § “External Search ROI” § Intermediate: § “Intranet ROI Model” § Advanced: § “CEO knows Search ROI” § See Enterprise Search Report for much more on search ROI. Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information 28

Conclusions § Remember the rant – Maturity is a characterization of the way an organization achieves its goals, not a goal in and of itself. § Not all search needs are created equal. § Stock photo agencies are tops at search on external site. § Their intranets are no better than anyone else’s because the ROI is not clear. § Consulting agencies have better intranets and KM efforts because of the clearer ROI. § High Maturity really means a Metrics Emphasis § Some organizations believe that is inappropriate for them § Use this as a guide to decide where to improve, and to decide which processes may be more sophisticated than your organization can handle § Keep in mind the difference between organizational and team sophistication. A specific team may do some very advanced things, even if the organization around them is not “mature”. Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information 29

Recommended Reading CMMI: http: //chrguibert. free. fr/cmmi (Official site is http: //www. sei. cmu. edu/cmmi/, but that is not the most comprehensible. ) Joel Test http: //www. joelonsoftware. com/articles/fog 000043. html EIA Roadmap http: //www. louisrosenfeld. com/presentations/031013 -KMintranets. ppt Enterprise Search Report http: //www. cmswatch. com/Ent. Search/ Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information 30

Taxonomy Strategies LLC Contact Info Ron Daniel 925 -368 -8371 [email protected] com Joseph Busch 415 -377 -7912 [email protected] com May 17, 2005 Copyright 2005 Taxonomy Strategies LLC. All rights reserved.

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
Which one of the following sets of phenomena would increase on raising the temperature?
(a) Diffusion, evaporation, compression of gases
(b) Evaporation, compression of gases, solubility
(c) Evaporation, diffusion, expansion of gases
(d) Evaporation, solubility, diffusion, compression of gases
(c) Rate of evaporation, diffusion and expansion of gases increase with increase in temperature.

Question 2.
Seema visited a Natural Gas Compressing Unit and found that the gas can be liquefied under specific conditions of temperature and pressure. While sharing her experience with friends she got confused. Help her to identify the correct set of conditions.
(a) Low temperature, low pressure
(b) High temperature, low pressure
(c) Low temperature, high pressure
(d) High temperature, high pressure
(c) Gases can be compressed under low temperature and high pressure. Under these conditions the particles of gases come closer and liquefy.

Question 3.
The property to flow is unique to fluids. Which one of the following statements is correct?
(a) Only gases behave like fluids.
(b) Gases and solids behave like fluids.
(c) Gases and liquids behave like fluids.
(d) Only liquids are fluids.
(c) Gases and liquids flow due to less intermolecular force in the molecules. Gases and liquids take the shape of the container in which they are put.

Question 4.
During summer, water kept in an earthen pot becomes cool because of the phenomenon of
(a) diffusion
(b) transpiration
(c) osmosis
(d) evaporation.
(d) Earthen pot has small pores through which water keeps evaporating and evaporation causes cooling.

Question 5.
A few substances are arranged in the increasing order of ‘forces of attraction’ between their particles. Which one of the following represents a correct arrangement?
(a) Water, air, wind
(b) Air, sugar, oil
(c) Oxygen, water, sugar
(d) Salt, juice, air
(c) Forces of attraction between the particles increase in the order of gases < liquids < solids hence, the correct arrangement is oxygen, water, sugar.

Question 6.
On converting 25°C, 38°C and 66°C to Kelvin scale, the correct sequence of temperature will be
(a) 298 K, 311 K and 339 K
(b) 298 K, 300 K and 338 K
(c) 273 K, 278 K and 543 K
(d) 298 K, 310 K and 338 K
(a) K =25 °C + 273
Hence 25°C = 273 + 25 = 298 K
38°C = 273 + 38 = 311 K
66°C = 273 + 66 = 339 K

Question 7.
Choose the correct statement of the following.
(a) Conversion of solid into vapours without passing through the liquid state is called vapourisation.
(b) Conversion of vapours into solid without passing through the liquid state is called sublimation.
(c) Conversion of vapours into solid without passing through the liquid state is called freezing.
(d) Conversion of solid into liquid is called sublimation. ’
(b) Conversion of vapours into solid without passing through the liquid state is called sublimation.

Question 8.
The boiling points of diethyl ether, acetone and n-butyl alcohol are 35°C, 56°C and 118°C respectively. Which one of the following correctly represents their boiling points in Kelvin scale?
(a) 306 K, 329 K, 391 K
(b) 308 K, 329 K, 392 K
(c) 308 K, 329 K, 391 K
(d) 329 K, 392 K, 308 K
(c): 35°C = 273 + 35 = 308 K
56°C = 273 + 56 = 329 K
118°C = 273 + 118 = 391 K

Question 9.
Which condition out of the following will increase the evaporation of water?
(a) Increase in temperature of water
(b) Decrease in temperature of water
(c) Less exposed surface area of water
(d) Adding common salt to water
(a): Rate of evaporation increases with increase in temperature of water.

Question 10.
ln which of the following conditions, the distance between the molecules of hydrogen gas would increase?
(i) Increasingpressureonhydrogencontained in a closed container.
(ii) Some hydrogen gas leaking out of the container.
(iii) Increasing the volume of the container of hydrogen gas.
(iv) Adding more hydrogen gas to the container without increasing the volume of the container.
(a) (i) and (iii)
(b) (i) and (iv)
(c) (ii) and (iii)
(d) (ii)and(iv)
(c) (ii) If some hydrogen gas is leaked from the container the remaining gas will occupy the whole space and the distance between the molecules will increase.
(iii) If the volume of the container is increased, same number of molecules will occupy that space. Hence, the distance between the molecules will increase.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 11.
A sample of water under s^tudy was found to boil at 102°C at normal temperature and pressure. Is the water pure? Will this water freeze at 0°C? Comment.
The sample of water boils at a higher temperature which shows that water is not pure. Due to impurities present in it water boils at a higher temperature. This water will freeze below 0°C.

Question 12.
A student heats a beaker containing ice and water. He measures the temperature of the content of the beaker as a function of time.
Which of the following (Fig. 1.1) would correctly represent the result? Justify your choice.

(d) Since ice and water are in equilibrium, the temperature would be zero. When we heat the mixture, ‘energy supplied is utilised in melting the ice and the temperature does not change till the ice melts because of latent heat of fusion. On further heating the temperature of the water would increase. Therefore (d) is the correct option.

Question 13.
Fill in the blanks:
(a) Evaporation of a liquid at room temperature leads to a ______ effect.
(b) At room temperature the forces of attraction between the particles of solid substances are ______ than those which exist in the gaseous state.
(c) The arrangement of particles is less ordered in the ______ state. However, there is no order in the state.
(d) ______ is the change of gaseous state directly to solid state without going through the ______ state.
(e) The phenomenon of change of a liquid into the gaseous state at any temperature below its boiling point is called ______.
(a) Cooling
(b) Stronger
(c) Liquid, gaseous
(d) Sublimation, liquid
(e) Evaporation

Question 14.
Match the physical quantities given in column A to their SI units given in column B.

Column (A)Column (B)
(a)Pressure(i)cubic metre
(e)Volume(v)kilogram per cubic metre

Question 15.
The non SI and SI units of some physical quantities are given in column A and column B respectively. Match the units belonging to the same physical quantity.

Column (A)Column (B)
(a)Degree Celsius(i)kilogram
(c)Gram per centimetre cube(iii)metre
(e)Milligram(v)kilogram per rpetrecube

Question 16.
‘Osmosis is a special kind of diffusion’. Comment.
In diffusion, the particles move from higher concentration to lower concentration without separation by a semipermeable membrane. In osmosis, the particles move from lower concentration to higher concentration (solvent to solution) when the two solutions are separated by a semipermeable membrane. Hence, osmosis is a special kind of diffusion involving movement of particles.

Question 17.
Classify the following into osmosis/diffusion:
(a) Swelling up of a raisin 9n keeping in water.
(b) Spreading of virus on sneezing.
(c) Earthworm dying on coming in contact with common salt.
(d) Shrinking of grapes kept in thick sugar syrup.
(e) Preserving pickles in salt.
(f) Spreading of smell of cake being baked throughout the house
(g) Aquatic animals using oxygen dissolved in water during respiration.
(a) Osmosis
(b) Diffusion
(c) Osmosis
(d) Osmosis
(e) Osmosis
(f) Diffusion
(g) Diffusion

Question 18.
Water as ice has a cooling effect, whereas water as steam may cause severe burns. Explain these observations.
Water in the form of ice has low energy since water freezes at a lower temperature. When ice comes in contact with body it draws heat from the body and gives cooling effect. In case of steam, the water molecules have high energy. The high energy of steam is transformed as heat and may cause severe burns.

Question 19.
Alka was making tea in a kettle. Suddenly she felt intense heat from the puff of steam gushing out of the spout of the kettle. She wondered whether the temperature of the steam was higher than that of the water boiling in the kettle. Comment.
The temperature of both boiling water and steam is 100°C but steam has more energy because of latent heat of vaporisation. Hence, steam is hotter than boiling water.

Question 20.
A glass tumbler containing hot water is kept in the freezer compartment of a refrigerator (temperature < 0°C). If you could measure the temperature of the content of the tumbler, which of the following graphs (Fig. 1.2) would correctly represent the change in its temperature as a function of time.

(a) The hot water in the glass tumbler kept in freezer will first become cold and the temperature will drop till 0°C. At 0°C, water loses heat equal to latent heat of fusion till entire water freezes to form ice at 0°C. During this change of state from liquid to solid, the temperature remains constant.
On still further cooling, the temperature of ice slowly falls with time. Therefore, the correct option is (a).

Question 21.
Look at Fig. 1.3 and suggest in which of the vessels A, B, C or D the rate of evaporation will be highest? Explain.

The rate of evaporation depends on the surface area of the container. More the surface area, more is the evaporation. It also depends on the speed of the wind. If speed of the wind is more, more number of particles will evaporate from the surface. Hence, the figure (C) in which both these factors, surface area and moving fan are there, the rate of evaporation will be maximum.

Question 22.
(a) Conversion of solid to vapour is called sublimation. Name the term used to denote the conversion of vapour to solid.
(b) Conversion of solid state to liquid state is called fusion what is meant by latent heat of fusion?
(a) Sublimation
(b) Latent heat of fusion is the amount of heat required to change 1 kg solid into liquid at atmospheric pressure at its melting point.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 23.
You are provided with a mixture of naphthalene and ammonium chloride by your teacher. Suggest an activity to separate them with well labelled diagram.
Mixture of naphthalene and ammonium chloride can be separated as follows :
Step-1: Put the mixture in a beaker and add water to it. Stir with a glass rod. Ammonium chloride being soluble in water gets dissolved leaving behind the insoluble naphthalene.
Step-2: Filter the solution. Naphthalene remains on the filter paper while ammonium chloride is obtained as filtrate.
Step-3: Evaporate the filtrate to get back ammonium chloride.

Question 24.
lt is a hot summer day, Priyanshi and Ali are wearing cotton and nylon clothes respectively. Who do you think would be more comfortable and why?
Priyanshi is wearing cotton clothes which are more comfortable in summers because cotton absorbs the sweat which causes cooling on evaporation. Ali is wearing nylon clothes which do not absorb sweat. Hence, Ali will be uncomfortable.

Question 25.
You want to wear your favourite shirt to a party, but the problem is that it is still wet after a wash. What steps would you take to dry it faster?
The process of drying the shirt can be made faster in the following ways :
(a) Spread the shirt to increase the surface area which will increase rate of evaporation.
(b) Put it in the sun to increase the temperature to increase the rate of evaporation.
(c) Keep it under the fan to increase the wind speed which increases the rate of evaporation.

Question 26.
Comment on the following statements:
(a) Evaporation produces cooling.
(b) Rate of evaporation of an aqueous solution decreases with increase in humidity.
(c) Sponge though compressible is a solid.
(a) Evaporation is a surface phenomenon. The particles from the surface of the liquid take energy from the surroundings and change into vapours which results in the decrease in energy of the surroundings. Hence, cooling effect is produced during evaporation.

(b) The amount of water present in the air is known as humidity. If the water vapour in air is already present in large amount, it is not able to take up more water through evaporation. Hence, the rate of evaporation of water will decrease. On a dry day, the air absorbs water more readily hence, the rate of evaporation is high on a dry day.

(c) A sponge is a solid but it has minute pores in which air is trapped. These pores make the sponge a soft material. When sponge is pressed, the air present in the pores comes out and the sponge is compressed.

Question 27.
Why does the temperature of a substance remain constant during its melting point or boiling point?
When a substance melts, it absorbs heat for the conversion of solid state into liquid state. As we continue heating, the heat supplied is used up in converting the solid state into liquid state by overcoming the forces of attraction between the particles and there is no change in temperature till the whole solid is converted into liquid. This heat absorbed by the solid which does not resitlt in increase in temperature, is called latent heat of fusion. When a liquid is heated, it starts converting into vapours.

Further heat given to the liquid is used in changing the state and there is no increase in the temperature till the liquid starts boiling. This heat is known as latent heat of vaporisation. Hence, the temperature of a substance remains constant at its melting point or boiling point untill all the substance melts or boils.


Thompson River and Chilcotin River Steelhead, Oncorhynchus mykiss (O. mykiss) – Potential Emergency SARA listing.

In late 2017 two on-line Parliamentary petitions – E-1416 and E-1419 – citing low returns of Thompson and Chilcotin Steelhead being primarily caused by: “Gill net and purse seine chum salmon fisheries, ……. occurring in the Fraser River and approach areas including Johnstone Strait, are known to intercept significant numbers of migrating Interior Fraser steelhead” resulted in an emergency assessment by COSEWIC (Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada). In its’ February 13, 2018 letter to the Minister of the Environment, COSEWIC concluded: “In summary, bycatch in commercial Pacific salmon fisheries and poor ocean conditions are causing high mortality for both designatable units of Steelhead Trout resulting in steep past, and projected future, declines.”

COSEWIC recommended an emergency listing of the designatable units (DU’s) of Thompson and Chilcotin Steelhead.

Unlike a normal SARA listing process, that involves extensive scientific studies and evaluations along with Social and Societal considerations and Socio-Economic impact assessments involving Cost-Benefit Analysis, this ‘Emergency Listing’ process has been given extremely tight timelines that has allowed for only a cursory science review (one paper peer reviewed through CSAS and two more to come, at some later date) and no meaningful consultation process that will conclude on December 2, 2018 with the final advice will going to the Minister by years end.

On September 21-22 Canadian Science Advisory Pacific (CSAP) conducted a peer review of a working paper on Thompson and Chilcotin Steelhead. This produced the now published RPA – Recovery Potential Assessment for Chilcotin River and Thompson River Steelhead Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) Designatable Units

This RPA highlights the lack of real data available as it relies heavily on assumptions and simulation models to reach conclusions and recommendations. Most telling though is the recognition that if the current productivity (measured in recruits per spawner) persists, even if the exploitation rate is zero there is little chance of recovery. This is significant as both the E-Petitions and the COSEWIC assessment suggested that the commercial fishery bycatch was mostly responsible for the decline.

For the Thompson DU, simulations estimate that if productivity levels from the most recent year persist (recruits/spawner), recovery is not expected regardless of exploitation rate. (pg. 2 RPA)
For the Chilcotin DU, simulations estimate that recovery probability is zero at all exploitation rates if productivity levels from the most recent year persist (pg. 3 RPA)

Potential Threats and Reasons for Low Productivity:
1. Altered ocean conditions – it is not just Steelhead that’s affected. El Nino, climate change and the recent ‘Warm Blob’ have had serious effects on the oceans food supply. In the past decade there has been some of the best and worst salmon returns in history: the disastrous 2009 Fraser sockeye run resulted in the Cohen Commission 2010 saw the largest Sockeye return in 100 years 2015, 2016 and 2017 recorded some of the lowest returns since the early 1950’s. The levels of decline in Steelhead are very similar to that of the other salmon returning to the Fraser River.

2. Habitat degradation: Agriculture water drawdowns cause reduce flows and raise in-river temperature in the summer months which can be lethal to juvenile Steelhead.

3. Predation: Becoming recognized is the level of pinniped predation (Harbor Seals and Sea Lions) on out-migrating smolts and returning adults. Studies have estimated that up to 40% of the out-migrating smolts (salmon and Steelhead) could be impacted by pinniped predation. It is known that there is intense competition between Sea Lions and Southern Resident Killer Whales for the larger salmon – this would include Chinook and Chum – and certainly Steelhead as well. A study on the Columbia River showed that greater than 45% of the returning Chinook were being consumed by Sea Lions. This has resulted in a Bill before the US Congress being passed this summer permitting a lethal cull to mitigate this predation. And as recently as early November a permit was issued to lethally remove 90 Sea Lions from the Willamette River that were decimating the returning Steelhead runs.

The RPA states on page 22:
“Although the working paper demonstrated a strong negative correlation between pinniped population growth and steelhead population decline, there was not consensus that there is a causal relationship between the two. Similarly, the recommendation for a pinniped cull in the working paper was not supported and requires further investigation.”
We believe that there was little time to explore this subject in depth to draw an informed conclusion and that it was suggested that the public might not be in favour of a cull. The actions taken in Washington and Oregon suggest a broader understanding and acceptance of this problem and potential immediate solutions are being implemented.

4. Commercial Fishing Bycatch: As stated, both the E-Petition and the COSEWIC Assessment attached a high level of blame on the commercial fisheries bycatch. Starting in the mid-90’s the commercial salmon fleet went through a massive restructuring eventually reducing the fleet to approximately 1/3 of its former self. To address stocks of concern, such as Interior Fraser Coho and Cultus Sockeye, fishing methodologies, gear modifications and reduction in fishing opportunities and harvest rates were implemented. Allowable harvest rates have been reduced from 70% - 80% (up to mid 90’s) to 20% to 40% (or less) depending on the species and year.

The RPA suggests Steelhead bycatch (mortalities) in commercial fisheries impacts 7-26% (average 18%) of the Steelhead returns. This number is based on a simulation model and not actual data. Most fishermen see very few, if any, Steelhead in their catches (if they do they are required to release unharmed). As a proxy on the possible level of commercial fishing Steelhead bycatch - between 1966 and 2018, in all Johnstone Straits Sockeye, Pink and Chum Test Fisheries (from mid-July until November), only 525 Steelhead encounters, in 51 years, have been recorded (by third party observers). There has been no DNA identification of any of these Steelhead and there are hundreds of Steelhead rivers and streams in the South Coast of BC and Puget Sound that these Steelhead could be migrating to.

The RPA states that the migration diversion between Johnstone Strait and the WCVI is unknown but it is believed that most of the Thompson Steelhead take the southern route and while it is suggested that many of the Chilcotin Steelhead may take the Johnstone Strait route. – this is an assumption for which there is no factual proof. It is known that the majority of out-migrating Steelhead smolts take the southern route around the bottom end of Vancouver Island and it is highly likely that the adults would return by the same route. A 1995 to 1999 gillnet study at Nitinat (Area 21) did identify an Interior Steelhead bycatch during the Chum fishery, this verification resulted in modifications to both gear and area fished (until mid-October) that proved to then avoid about 98% of the potential Steelhead encounters.

With the lack of verifiable data we do not believe that there is any accuracy to the mortality impacts suggested by the ‘simulation models’.

5. Recreational Fishery Catch and Release Mortality:
The Recreational catch and release Steelhead fishery claims a 2%-3% mortality rate on a onetime event. It fails to assess what the effect of repeatedly catching and releasing the same fish over and over again nor the how long term stress catch and release may have on spawning success.

6. Biology – The Shared Life Strategies of Steelhead and Rainbow Trout (O. mykiss):
Steelhead and Rainbow Trout are genetically the same animal. Steelhead Trout are the anadromous version (sea going) of O. mykiss and Rainbow Trout are referred to as residents, as they remain in their natal habitat. Unlike salmon, Steelhead do not always die after spawning and may out-migrate and return to spawn several times. In many Steelhead populations this occurs at >10%, however for unknown reasons, in Thompson Steelhead it is ♥%.

This species is an enigma in that Steelhead and Rainbows cross-breed and both produce offspring that may remain resident or may migrate to sea. There have been many studies but none are conclusive. However, it is thought that ‘the decision’ of which life strategy to follow may be influenced by environmental triggers. Possibly the current poor ocean conditions are responsible for a greater proportion of O. mykiss remaining residents rather than venture out to a hostile environment.

The RPA was focused solely on the lifecycle of Steelhead (O. mykiss - anadromous) and ignored Rainbow Trout (O. mykiss - resident). Considering that Rainbows can and do produce Steelhead we feel it is a mistake to not take into consideration that the genetic diversity of each of these Steelhead DU’s is being preserved in the resident Rainbows. It is also shortsighted that there is a current moratorium on the recreational Steelhead fishery and there is still an allowable directed Rainbow Trout fishery ongoing.

Some scientists have suggested that the only way to assure the future of these DU’s (Thompson and Chilcotin) would be a hatchery intervention. We assume that this is what is meant in the following passage on page 9 of the RPA - “Therefore, simulations suggest that the population will continue to decline even in the absence of exploitation and an increase in productivity is critical to recover this population (either through direct intervention or by natural improvements in ocean conditions).”

7. RPA Recommendation for Recovery Target
In the Summary on page 2 of the RPA is the following bullet suggesting a target of 938 spawners:
“Recommended Abundance Recovery Target for Thompson Steelhead Trout DU is 938 spawners. This value, which also meets the distribution target, is the total escapement to the DU that results in a 95% probability that a minimum of 100 spawners returns to each of its five sub-areas in the same year.
While the Executive Summary in David Levy’s ‘Independent Review of the Science and Management of Thompson River’ (2014) suggests the path to get to that number may hit a bottleneck:
“Juvenile assessments undertaken by the B.C. Fish and Wildlife Branch, coupled with annual escapement monitoring, provide a basis for steelhead productivity analysis. Parr populations in the Thompson and its tributaries have shown only minor variations between years (between 217,000-307,000 parr) despite 4-fold differences in spawner density (approximately 500-2000 spawners). It follows that a freshwater population bottleneck may be suppressing the ability of the steelhead population to increase.”
It would appear that there needs to be a lot more scientific investigation before we just start closing fisheries as has been suggested in the proposed management actions below.


A SARA listing means “NO HARM”. This would not only apply to the Commercial fisheries, but to all Recreational and First Nations FSC fisheries as well, from the marine approach areas (or further) right up to the watershed for an indeterminate amount of time.

The Consultation document provided two tables of ‘rolling fisheries closures’ – one for a ‘Do Not List’ scenario (the 26 days implemented in 2018) and one for a ‘LIST’ scenario which preliminarily indicates a (minimum) 60-day rolling closure from the August 26 though to November 6 in the marine area and right through to December 31 up to and in the watershed. This would apply to all fisheries, including FSC.

In recent years the majority of the lucrative commercial fisheries have been on Late run Fraser Sockeye, Fraser Pinks and the regular Johnstone Strait, Fraser River and Nitinat Chum fisheries – these all occur within the window of the proposed rolling closure and this would be the end of these fisheries.

This (minimum) 60-day closure would decimate the south coast commercial salmon fisheries and the South Coast salmon fleets.

This would also have a ripple effect on Processors, their employees and suppliers all up and down the coast.

In the Seine fleet it would have a more far reaching effect because providing multiple fishing opportunities for seine crews is critical to keeping an experience crew employed and the boat operational. Losing this fishery jeopardizes the diversity that many seine fishermen have built into their business plans to remain viable.

This would be devastating to the investments that fishermen have made in their boats and licenses.

This would be devastating to coastal communities.

A moratorium on all salmon fisheries will lead to major over-spawning of most systems and mirror the collapse that occurred from over-spawning the Horsefly Sockeye in 2001 and 2002.

This would also challenge B. C.’s Food security – having a robust and healthy salmon fishery guarantees local food security.

“Increases in Steelhead Trout productivity (i.e., recruits/spawner), or reductions in exploitation can contribute to or reduce rates of future decline in some scenarios. However, eliminating exploitation alone will likely not result in population recovery.” (pg. 12, RPA)
The above passage leads one to ask the following questions:

The Steelhead would appear to have a varied cycle timeline unlike other Fraser salmon – i.e. Adams Sockeye every 4 years (2010, 2014, 2018….). Ocean conditions have been improving and – there’s always Rainbow Trout to preserve the DU. These Steelhead will not go extinct during the time it would take to address this issue properly.

Measures to protect Cultus sockeye should have provided a valuable lesson. Curtailing sockeye fisheries to rebuild Cultus Sockeye fisheries have not saved the species. The problems were recognized, a rebuilding plan was developed and it should have been Government’s responsibility to see that it was carried out – the ball was dropped. The situation with Thompson and Chilcotin Steelhead is somewhat similar – but we don’t need a big stick like SARA – we need to do the proper science, identify the solutions and carry out the plan.

While it is obvious that there is a problem with the Steelhead populations of these two DU’s there is no obvious solution and no consensus on how to get to there. This can be highlighted by the table below (page 20 of the RPA), the fact that the Table is blank along with the footnote indicating that it is blank because there no consensus and needs “significant further investigation” tells us what we need to know – the science review was rushed, lacks data, is full of assumptions and does not provide the kind of direction that should be required to properly inform the Listing process.

Table A1. Threat assessment for Thompson and Chilcotin Steelhead Trout in Pacific Canadian waters.
Likelihood of Occurrence
Level of Impact
Causal Certainty
Threat Risk
Threat Occurrence
Threat Frequency
Threat Extent
Bycatch in Commercial Fisheries

Food, Social, Ceremonial (FSC) Fisheries
(Directed and Bycatch)

*Note – the six categories of risk assessment were discussed extensively however, consensus on the final scorings was not achieved and consequently they are not presented. The threats table requires significant further investigation and discussion to achieve evidence-based scores for each of the threats.

The Commercial fishery participants have always demonstrated a proactive willingness to address critical conservation issues and work towards practical and meaningful solutions. We want to be part of the solution for rebuilding the Interior Steelhead populations by working closely with government agencies and all other groups to find practical solutions, but we are totally opposed to indiscriminately closing fisheries when it has been acknowledged that there would be little benefit.

The Steelhead Working Group – Representing South Coast Commercial Salmon Fishing Fleets

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Watch the video: Introduction to Animal Diversity (January 2023).