General

Ecological Relations



Predatism: Inharmonious Ecological Relationship

What are

These are the relationships between living beings or between them and the environment. These relationships can be harmonic when there is no loss between the species involved or inharmonious, when one species takes advantage over the other.

Main ecological relations

Commensalism

It is an ecological relationship between living beings of different species where one species benefits from food without harming another. The animal that benefits from the relationship is called the other's dinner.

Examples:

- The vulture eats the remains of a hunted animal already eaten by lions.

- The pilot fish is trapped in the shark, feeding on the food left by the shark.

Tenancy

It is a harmonious ecological relationship between living beings of different species, where one species benefits from support and protection, while the other species is not harmed. Living beings who benefit are called tenants.

Example:

- Plants known as “vines” surround and over the trunk and tree branches for protection and light. But the trees are not harmed in this relationship.

Mutualism

It is a harmonic ecological relationship between living beings of different species where both benefit from the relationship. More than that, species need each other to survive, that is, they establish a relationship of dependence.

Examples:

- Termite and protozoan that live in your digestive system. Termite needs this protozoan to digest cellulose. On the other hand, this protozoan needs the cellulose consumed by the termite to feed and live.

- The relationship between algae and fungi, forming lichens. Fungi provide algae with protection, minerals and nitrogen. On the other hand, they receive organic matter from algae to feed on.

Predatism

Ecological, food-related, inharmonious relationship where one species benefits over another. The predatory species is the one that benefits by feeding on prey (harmed) prey.

Examples:

- The relationship between the lion and the zebra. The lion hunts, kills and feeds on zebra flesh.

- The relationship between a wild cat and a rodent.

Cooperation or protocooperation

Harmonic ecological relationship between living beings of different species where both benefit, but unlike mutualism, they do not need each other to survive.

Examples:

- Relationship between bees and some species of vegetables. Bees feed on the nectar of these plants, which are not harmed; on the contrary, they benefit from pollination by bees.

- Some species of birds that eat ox and horse ticks.

Parasitism

Inharmonious ecological relationship between living beings of different species where one benefits, while the other is harmed without dying. The species that benefits is called the parasite, while the other is the host.

Examples:

- The relationship between ticks and a capybara. Ticks feed on the capybara's blood. The hostess does not die, but is harmed by losing blood.

- Parasitic worms that live in the intestines of pigs.

Amensalism

Inharmonious ecological relationship where competition for resources occurs. In this relationship, the two species of living beings are harmed because one ends up harming the development of the other.

Example:

- Roots of a tree that can impair the germination of other plants. However, by being able to germinate and develop, these plants can remove mineral resources from the soil, harming the development of the tree.