Information

Will a bone marrow transplant change one's blood type?

Will a bone marrow transplant change one's blood type?


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Will a bone marrow transplant change one's blood type?

Or is the donor blood type matched with the person before transplant?


Bone Marrow transplants are extensively matched in order to prevent rejection. Current matching methodology is HLA matching: Stanford Children's Hospital Guidelines

How are a donor and recipient matched?
Matching involves typing human leukocyte antigen (HLA) tissue. The antigens on the surface of these special white blood cells determine the genetic make-up of a person's immune system. There are at least 100 HLA antigens; however, it is believed that there are a few major antigens that determine whether a donor and recipient match. The others are considered minor and their effect on a successful transplant is not as well defined.

Medical research is still investigating the role all antigens play in the process of a bone marrow transplant. The more antigens that match, the better the engraftment of donated marrow. Engraftment of the stem cells occurs when the donated cells make their way to the marrow and begin reproducing new blood cells.

However, because the HLA matching doesn't utilize blood-type and the recipient's marrow is destroyed in the process, then if the donor's marrow produces different red blood cells - then so will the recipient with time:

Does my blood type change after SCT or [Bone Marrow Transplant]?

Yes. The recipients blood type eventually changes to the donor type. That means if you had a blood type of A+ prior to transplant and your donor had a blood type of O, eventually your blood type would become O. I may take several weeks, possibly months for your original blood type to disappear, but eventually it will.

What's interesting is that blood-typing is not be expressly necessary with the modern bone marrow transplant process. The danger of mixing two antagonistic blood types in vivo is that the recipient's immune system attacks the foreign red blood cells resulting in body-wide rejection. However, because the immune system's response capabilities are decimated by the destruction of the recipient's bone marrow (usually accomplished via chemotherapy or radiation), it can't mount much of an attack in the first place. That's not to say the body can't mount an attack, or that the donor's tissue can't mount an attack on the recipient (Graft-Versus-Host-Disease [GVHD]) - but the better the HLA match the less likely issues are to arise, which is why we do the more accurate and relevant HLA matching instead of blood-typing.


Has a bone marrow transplant caused confusion in criminal investigations?

Dr. Azita Alizadeh wrote an 'Ask a geneticist' column about how patients with a bone marrow transplant will end up with at least two different sets of DNA in their body - DNA from their blood (which comes from the bone marrow) might not match the DNA for a cheek swab.

She goes on to tell an anecdote that this has had real world consequences for criminal investigations:

Semen was collected at the crime scene and the semen DNA matched a blood sample from a known criminal in the database. But this person whose blood matched the semen was in jail when the physical attack happened. At the same time the crime sample also matched the DNA profile of another person.

Is it true that there have been situations where DNA mix-ups due to bone marrow transplants has lead to confusion during a criminal investigation?


Bone marrow versus peripheral blood allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for haematological malignancies in adults

Background: Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is an established treatment option for many malignant and non-malignant disorders. In the past two decades, peripheral blood stem cells replaced bone marrow as stem cell source due to faster engraftment and practicability. Previous meta-analyses analysed patients treated from 1990 to 2002 and demonstrated no impact of the stem cell source on overall survival, but a greater risk for graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) in peripheral blood transplants. As transplant indications and conditioning regimens continue to change, whether the choice of the stem cell source has an impact on transplant outcomes remains to be determined.

Objectives: To assess the effect of bone marrow versus peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in adult patients with haematological malignancies with regard to overall survival, incidence of relapse and non-relapse mortality, disease-free survival, transplant-related mortality, incidence of GvHD and time to engraftment.

Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2014, Issue 1), MEDLINE (from 1948 to February 2014), trial registries and conference proceedings. The search was conducted in October 2011 and was last updated in February 2014. We did not apply any language restrictions.

Selection criteria: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing bone marrow and peripheral blood allogeneic stem cell transplantation in adults with haematological malignancies.

Data collection and analysis: Two review authors screened abstracts and extracted and analysed data independently. We contacted study authors for additional information. We used the standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration.


Autologous

The patient's own marrow or peripheral blood is used. Like syngeneic transplants, there is no risk of rejection or GVHD, and the GVL effect is absent. There is the additional concern of tumor contamination of the transplant. This may be a relatively minor concern for certain solid tumors but is a major problem for all blood cancers and some solid tumors. Johns Hopkins has pioneered methods to 'purge' or remove tumor cells from autologous transplants, as well as methods to reduce relapse similar to the allogeneic GVL effect.


How to change your blood type without even trying

Blood types were once thought to be with people for life. And, in almost every case, they're still thought to be with a person for life. But there is one patient whose blood type actually changed. A liver transplant, apparently, has a shot of changing a person's blood type.

There was once a simple time in human history when everyone had just one blood type, and that blood type was O negative. It wasn't called O at the time, of course, because even if anyone was looking at it, it would just have been blood to them. But life kept up its usual trick of evolving, and suddenly, on the surface of the lovely, smooth, red blood cells were little agglutinations of protein. There was what's now known as the Rh factor, the thing that turns O negative blood into O positive blood. Then there were other little clumps of protein, which separated Rh positive blood and Rh negative blood into A and B types. For the vast majority of history, only the Rh factor caused any bother. The system of an Rh negative woman who became pregnant with an Rh positive baby could see the infant's blood type as an outside body, and attack it. This was such a selector that today eighty-five percent of people are Rh positive.

Meanwhile, A and B types only began troubling humankind by the time blood transfusions and organ transplants were happening. (Before that, any human blood or organs entering the body generally came via the stomach, which isn't that fussy about blood types.) Again, the immune system would attack the strangely bedecked blood cells and cause medical problems. Type O patients, roughly forty-five percent of the population, could give out their blood and organs, but couldn't receive anyone else's. The Rh factor of the blood depended on what type of medical procedure was being done.

And so the world became concerned with these little blobs on blood, and with the genes that caused them. Since it was genetic, blood type was for life, and there was no way around the variations (Two more of which were found just recently. The Junior and Langereis, which affect about 50,000 people in Japan.) so there wasn't anything to be done except finding universal O negative donors and draining them like Capri Sun juice bags. So imagine people's surprise when they found out that blood type can change.

Technically, it depends on what people mean by blood type. The genes don't change. However, people noticed that after bone marrow transplants, recovered patients sometimes slowly developed their donor's blood types. The marrow was used making one kind of blood, and it would continue, slowly filling people with cells that didn't match their genotype. That made sense. Scientists had put a new manufacturing center in their patient. It would make what it had always made. It also made a certain, if surprising, sense that cancers that affected blood and bone marrow could change a person's expressed blood type as well.


Then an infant with rubella, who has been typed as A many times in the first eight weeks of her life, suddenly lost her A agglutinations. At four months old, her blood type had actually changed. This may sound eerie to us, but it was good news to those who wanted to turn blood into a fluid that can be donated from anyone to anyone, including to and from one of those 50,000 people in Japan. Anything that could shear off agglutinations could make every bag of blood into a universal donor bag. It just, preferably, shouldn't be rubella.

After years of searching, the best candidate for an agglutination-snipper came from a special mushroom. (No, not that one.) An enzyme isolated from fungi was found to turn any blood, any blood at all, to type O, and it did it while the blood was in the bag, not in the patient. This can change blood into a fluid that can be given to anyone, and given the shortages at blood banks, anything that made blood more available to all patients is a good thing. The method is still being tested, but hopefully blood will become a lot more common soon.

But there is still one extraordinary blood type change mystery still out there, in the form of what today is a nineteen-year-old girl. As a nine-year-old, the girl's liver failed. A transplant liver was found, and the surgery was successful. Unfortunately, the girl began to get sick on the drugs that she had to take to force her body not to reject the new liver. Rejection is a huge concern for all donors. People have to take anti-rejection drugs their whole lives. Sickening immediately when taking them was a very bad sign. And then scientists typed her blood. The girl had spontaneously changed her blood, or rather her liver had spontaneously changed her blood. Stem cells from the liver got to her bone marrow, and then to her entire immune system. Slowly her blood type change from O negative to O positive, and her body accepted the liver. She was taken off the drugs, since she didn't actually need them anymore. Doctors called it an one-in-six-billion event. It would be great, for many transplant patients, if someday we could make the odds a little better than that.


Choose a transplant center

We provide detailed information on U.S. transplant centers to help you and your doctors choose the transplant center that is best for you.

Find a transplant center using the Transplant Center Directory.

A transplant center is a hospital that has a blood or marrow transplant program. We provide detailed information on U.S. transplant centers to help you and your doctors choose the transplant center that is best for you. Many of these centers are part of the NMDP* Network so they meet specific guidelines for quality care. There are also many international transplant centers in the NMDP Network.

Information to help you choose

To find a center that is best for you, work with your doctor and insurance company. Some important factors in choosing a transplant center include:

Insurance coverage – Your insurance company may require you go to a certain transplant center. Talk with your insurance company to find out where you can go or get approval to go to a different center.

Your doctor – Your doctor may recommend specific transplant centers.

Costs – Donor search and other costs before transplant can vary by transplant center. Contact the transplant center financial coordinator to learn more about their costs. Find resources to help you plan for transplant costs.

Location – You might have to travel to receive a transplant. Consider how far the transplant center is from your home. Contact the transplant center to see if there are low cost housing options for you and your caregiver. You will need to stay near the center after your transplant. The length of time can vary depending on your situation.

Support services – Different transplant centers may have different types of support services available. Many of these services are in the center listing or you can contact the transplant center to learn more about them.

HLA matching requirements –Transplant centers may require different levels of HLA matching. Contact the transplant center to learn more information about specific HLA requirements.

Experience treating patients like you – Transplant centers have different areas of expertise. Look at the transplant center information to see what types of transplants they do. Contact them for more information about their specialty areas. Learn about transplant center patient outcomes and experience. Find out how many patients with your disease that transplant center has treated.

Questions to ask the transplant center

To learn more about a transplant center it is helpful to contact the center and ask specific questions. Use the Transplant Center Worksheet (PDF) to gather the answers to some of these questions:

  1. Does a patient see the same transplant doctor throughout the transplant process? Or does a patient see a rotating team of doctors?
  2. How long is the average hospital stay?
  3. What are the center's visitor policies? Are children allowed to visit? Can guests or parents stay overnight?
  4. Can children continue schooling while at the center? Are tutoring services available? Is schooling available for siblings that might have to travel with the family?
  5. What support services are available for patients, caregivers and children? (Support available might include child-life specialists, clergy, social workers, volunteers or day care.)
  6. Are patients or caregivers able to connect to the Internet from their rooms?
  7. How does this center stay in contact with the patient's primary doctor after discharge?

Resources

The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HRSA) has patient survival and transplant data for transplants done in the U.S. These include 100-day, 1-year and 3-year survival by disease.
BMT InfoNet offers information about transplant centers that do related, unrelated or autologous transplants.

*The National Marrow Donor Program® (NMDP) Network includes transplant centers in the U.S. and around the world. The NMDP also operates Be The Match®.

Our BMT Patient Navigators can answer your questions about choosing a transplant center. They also provide support and education to help you through your transplant journey.


What to know about bone marrow transplants

Bone marrow is soft, spongy tissue within some bones, including those in the hips and thighs. People with certain blood-related conditions benefit from a transplant that replaces damaged cells with healthy cells, possibly from a donor.

Bone marrow transplants can be lifesaving for people with conditions such as lymphoma or leukemia, or when intensive cancer treatment has damaged blood cells.

This type of transplant can be an intensive procedure, and recovery can take a long time.

Here, we provide an overview of bone marrow transplants, including their uses, risks, and recovery.

Share on Pinterest A close family member is, in many cases, the donor.

Bone marrow contains stem cells. In healthy people, stem cells in bone marrow help create:

  • red blood cells, which carry oxygen throughout the body
  • white blood cells, which help fight off infection
  • platelets, which create clots to prevent excessive bleeding

If a medical condition — such as one that damages the blood or immune system — prevents the body from creating healthy blood cells, a person may need a bone marrow transplant.

A person with any of the following conditions may be a candidate for a bone marrow transplant:

  • blood cancers, such as lymphoma or leukemia
  • immune or genetic diseases, such as sickle cell disease or thalassemia
  • bone marrow diseases, such as aplastic anemia
  • bone marrow damage due to chemotherapy or radiation therapy for cancer

Types

There are three types of bone marrow transplant, based on where the healthy bone marrow cells come from.

In many cases, the donor is a close family member, such as a sibling or parent. The medical name for this is an allogenic transplant.

Transplants are more likely to be effective if the donated stem cells have a similar genetic makeup to the person’s own stem cells.

If a close family member is not available, the doctor will search a registry of donors to find the closest match. While an exact match is best, advances in transplant procedures are making it possible to use donors who are not an exact match.

In a procedure called an autologous transplant, the doctor will take healthy blood stem cells from the person being treated and replace these cells later, after removing any damaged cells in the sample.

In an umbilical cord transplant, also called a cord transplant, doctors use immature stem cells from the umbilical cord following a baby’s birth. Unlike cells from an adult donor, the cells from an umbilical cord do not need to be as close a genetic match.

Before a bone marrow transplant, the doctor will run tests to determine the best type of procedure. They will then locate an appropriate donor, if necessary.

If they can use the person’s own cells, they will collect the cells in advance and store them safely in a freezer until the transplant.

The person will then undergo other treatment, which may involve chemotherapy, radiation, or a combination of the two.

These procedures typically destroy bone marrow cells as well as cancer cells. Chemotherapy and radiation also suppress the immune system, helping to prevent it from rejecting a bone marrow transplant.

While preparing for the transplant, the person may need to stay in the hospital for 1–2 weeks . During this time, a healthcare professional will insert a small tube into one of the person’s larger veins.

Through the tube, the person will receive medication that destroys any abnormal stem cells and weakens the immune system to prevent it from rejecting the healthy transplanted cells.


Click here to order our latest book, A Handy Guide to Ancestry and Relationship DNA Tests

I recently read Natalie Dye's response to a question about chimera DNA. As A Crime Scene Investigator and instructor this piqued my interest and has me wondering about DNA as it relates to bone marrow transplants. Would a person who receives a bone marrow transplant essentially now have two potential sources of DNA, the original pre-existing in the body's cells and now another from the donor cells of the bone marrow?

-A curious adult from Texas

You are exactly right. A bone marrow transplant turns the patient into a chimera. What I mean is that the DNA in their blood is different than the DNA in the rest of their cells.

In theory, this could complicate a criminal investigation. In fact, there is at least one case where it did. Before going into that, though, let's go a bit more into how DNA testing and bone marrow transplants work.

DNA has been used in the courtroom as evidence for the last 25 years or so. It has helped convict the guilty and set free the innocent. And it isn't just for the courtroom.

DNA testing (also called DNA typing) can be used to figure out who the father of a child is. It can also be used to figure out fertility issues. Or to figure out if someone is a match for a bone marrow or organ transplant. DNA testing is everywhere!

DNA typing is based on the fact that every cell in a human body contains identical DNA and that everyone's DNA is different. DNA testing can be done by collecting DNA from very small amounts of human hair, bone, skin tissue, saliva, semen, and blood.

Every person differs from each other in around 0.1% of their DNA. Scientists have identified 13 places on our DNA that are very different between individuals. They use those areas to produce profiles that can distinguish one individual from another.

The way these tests are usually done, though, a person's DNA has to be the same in every cell. But this isn't always the case.

Sometimes people are born with two different sets of DNA (click here to learn more). These folks are called chimeras.

And sometimes a person develops different DNA later in life. A common example is small DNA changes that happen in some of our cells over time. These folks are called mosaics.

Mosaics usually aren't a problem because DNA tests look at 13 different spots. The odds are slim that one of these 13 will be the one that gets changed. And it is even less likely that two will change.

It is also possible to artificially end up with different DNA in some of our cells. Some ways are temporary (like blood transfusions). But others like bone marrow transplants are permanent.

A bone marrow transplant is used to treat a number of illnesses. It can treat people with various blood and bone marrow diseases. It is also used in the treatment of some forms of cancer.

The way it works is a doctor first destroys a patient's blood cells or bone marrow. This is often done with chemotherapy or radiation. The doctor then puts in new bone marrow from a matched donor.

OK, interesting but why would that affect a DNA test? Because the new bone marrow cells have the donor's DNA. And bone marrow contains blood stem cells. These blood stem cells are responsible for making our blood.

Our blood cells need to be replaced constantly (this is why a blood transfusion only temporarily changes the DNA profile of our blood). What this means in a bone marrow transplant patient is that his or her blood comes from the donor's stem cells. And so has the donor's DNA.

Now it used to be that patients had all of their bone marrow destroyed. Which meant that the donor's bone marrow completely replaced theirs.

Recently some bone marrow transplant patients get lower doses of chemotherapy and radiation that don't kill all of their bone marrow cells. These patients will have some of their own bone marrow and some of the donor bone marrow. This means their blood DNA profile will be a mixture of both the donor and recipient.

Theoretically this is all fascinating. But has it ever affected a real case? Yes.

Abirami Chidambaram of the Alaska State Scientific Crime Detection Laboratory in Anchorage gave details about one such case. The case involved a serious sexual assault.

Semen was collected at the crime scene and the semen DNA matched a blood sample from a known criminal in the data base. But this person whose blood matched the semen was in jail when the physical attack happened. At the same time the crime sample also matched the DNA profile of another person.

At first all the detectives were confused by this case. With good detective work they found out that both people had the same last names and were brothers.

They discovered that the person who was in jail received bone marrow from his brother several years earlier. So, his blood DNA profile was the same as his brother's blood DNA profile. But his cheek swab DNA profile was different from his brother's.

This case shows that it is very important to test both blood and another tissue in a suspect's body to make sure they show the same DNA profile. So police may have to check both blood and cheek samples to be sure of recognizing a transplant recipient. Or even a natural born chimera.

This case also points out the small risk that potential marrow donors take by having their DNA profile turning up in a crime database if the recipient later commits a crime. But this risk is probably better than the alternative.

Dr. Azita Alizadeh


Author information

Affiliations

Division of hematology, National Defence Medical College, Tokorozawa, Japan

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Kanazawa University Hospital, Kanazawa, Japan

Japanese Red Cross Kanto-koshinetsu block blood center, Tokyo, Japan

Hematology Division, Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center, Komagome Hospital, Tokyo, Japan

Division of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan

Department of Hematology, Japanese Red Cross Nagoya First Hospital, Nagoya, Japan

Department of Hematology, Hiroshima Red Cross Hospital and Atomic Bomb Survivors Hospital, Hiroshima, Japan

Department of Hematology, Hamanomachi Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan

Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan

Department of Hematology, Federation of National Public Service Personnel Mutual Aid Associations Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan

Department of Gastroenterology and Hematology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan

Division of Hematology, Saiseikai Maebashi Hospital, Maebashi, Japan

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan

Japanese Data Center for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, Nagoya, Japan

Department of Healthcare Administration, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan

Division of Hematology, Saitama Medical Center, Jichi Medical University, Saitama, Japan

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar

Consortia

For the donor/source working group of the Japan Society for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

Corresponding author


Innovative imaging technique for bone marrow transplants investigated

OKLAHOMA CITY -- With the lifesaving potential of a bone marrow transplant comes an anxious few weeks of waiting to see if the patient begins producing new cells. A hematology oncologist at OU Health Stephenson Cancer Center is the co-leader of a national clinical trial that could revolutionize the field with an imaging technique that provides an early look at a transplant's likely success or failure.

The clinical trial represents more than 15 years of work by Jennifer Holter-Chakrabarty, M.D., a bone marrow transplant physician at Stephenson Cancer Center. Her research was launched in response to the tragic outcome of a patient with leukemia who received a bone marrow transplant. She cared for the patient until the point when laboratory and clinical diagnostic techniques available at the time were able to determine if the bone marrow had repopulated. The transplant failed and the patient eventually succumbed to an infection and died.

Holter-Chakrabarty was determined to find a way to see, soon after a transplant, whether the bone marrow is growing. "That was the state of the science at the time - we didn't have the diagnostic capability of predicting if a transplant would be successful," she said. "It was very upsetting to lose my patient because I couldn't tell whether her cells where growing. I am hopeful that this clinical trial will let us know early on whether a transplant is working, so that we can take different steps to intervene if needed. Waiting four to six weeks is too long."

Holter-Chakrabarty's research trajectory began after reading a publication by scientists in the Netherlands who had used a new imaging agent called fluorothymidine (FLT) in positron emission tomography (PET) for solid tumors like breast and lung cancer. In that case, FLT imaging provided an excellent view of the bones but a poor look at the breasts and lungs. Holter-Chakrabarty realized that those researchers' problem was her solution - an imaging agent that could light up the bones to reveal whether marrow was growing.

FLT's potential is in how it differs from the current standard imaging agent, FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose). Because FDG is tied to glucose, when used for imaging, it recognizes any cell that is active, whether dividing or because of inflammation. However, the thymidine in FLT only distinguishes cells that that are dividing - the exact behavior of a bone marrow transplant that is working as intended.

Holter-Chakrabarty first tested FLT imaging in the laboratory, where it allowed her to see bone marrow repopulating in mice whose marrow had been irradiated. She then tested it in a small clinical trial in bone marrow transplant patients who were at low risk of failure because of the similarity of the donor's marrow. Again, that trial demonstrated that FLT imaging could accurately predict early marrow growth, as well as the safety of FLT.

In the current trial, Holter-Chakrabarty is testing FLT imaging in patients whose type of bone marrow transplant puts them at a 10-12% chance of failure. In particular, the patients have undergone cord blood transplants, which use donated cells from a mother's placenta, and haplo-identical transplants, which are matched by half, usually siblings or parents of the recipient. Patients will undergo imaging one day prior to transplant, at five to nine days after transplant, and again 28 days after. In another cohort, patients who are not producing new cells by day 24 will undergo a single FLT image to determine whether the transplant is delayed or has failed.

The trial also will allow Holter-Chakrabarty to study different biomarkers to learn more about why some transplant recipients are more at risk for failure than others.

"The more we know about the biology of the process, like understanding which proteins are in particular places and what types of modifications occur in the cells, the more we can be very direct and prescriptive about how we make changes to help the patient early on," she said.

The clinical trial, funded by the National Institutes of Health, will enroll 50 patients at three centers: OU Health, Emory University and the University of Michigan. Holter-Chakrabarty's colleagues at the two other sites lead the project with her. If successful, the trial will mark a major leap forward for bone marrow transplant physicians and the blood cancer patients they treat. Patients whose bone marrow transplants fail only have a 30% survival rate over three years. Moving closer to improving those odds is gratifying, Holter-Chakrabarty said.

"It has been very exciting to reach this point," she said. "To be able to see bone marrow growing in a human while you're doing the transplant is a first for our field. This trial is addressing the very problem I faced when I lost my patient all those years ago, and it will provide hope for our patients in the future."

OU HEALTH STEPHENSON CANCER CENTER

OU Health Stephenson Cancer Center was named Oklahoma's top facility for cancer care by U.S. News & World Report in its 2020-21 rankings. As Oklahoma's only National Cancer Institute-Designated Cancer Center, Stephenson Cancer Center is one of the nation's elite centers, representing the top 2% of cancer centers in the country. It is the largest and most comprehensive oncology practice in the state, delivering patient-centered, multidisciplinary care for every type of cancer. As one of the nation's leading research organizations, Stephenson Cancer Center uses the latest innovations to fight and eliminate cancer, and is currently ranked No. 1 among all cancer centers in the nation for the number of patients participating in clinical trials sponsored by the NCI's National Clinical Trials Network. For more information, visit stephensoncancercenter.org.

OU Health -- along with its academic partner, the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center -- is the state's only comprehensive academic health system of hospitals, clinics and centers of excellence. With 11,000 employees and more than 1,300 physicians and advanced practice providers, OU Health is home to Oklahoma's largest physician network with a complete range of specialty care. OU Health serves Oklahoma and the region with the state's only freestanding children's hospital, the only National Cancer Institute-Designated OU Health Stephenson Cancer Center and Oklahoma's flagship hospital, which serves as the state's only Level 1 trauma center. Becker's Hospital Review named University of Oklahoma Medical Center one of the 100 Great Hospitals in America for 2020. OU Health's oncology program at Stephenson Cancer Center and University of Oklahoma Medical Center was named Oklahoma's top facility for cancer care by U.S. News & World Report in its 2020-21 rankings. OU Health was also ranked by U.S. News & World Report as high performing in these specialties: Colon Surgery, COPD and Congestive Heart Failure. OU Health's mission is to lead healthcare in patient care, education and research. To learn more, visit ouhealth.com.

Disclaimer: AAAS and EurekAlert! are not responsible for the accuracy of news releases posted to EurekAlert! by contributing institutions or for the use of any information through the EurekAlert system.