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I would like to make an infographic showcasing the order Lagomorpha (rabbits, hares, and pikas), which contains a dozen genera and about 100 species. I want to include a picture for most species, or, failing that, a picture for each genus. The difficulty is that I'm not at all an expert on these animals -- I just find them cute and I like infographics -- so if I simply google around for pictures of them, I won't be able to verify that a picture labeled "Bunolagus monticularis" is actually a picture of a Bunolagus monticularis specimen, rather than something else.
Photographs would be ideal, but I'm fine with using sketches instead when no photographs are available. It would also be ideal if the images were free to use and in the public domain (or licensed under some version of Creative Commons)
Is there any source for images of species specimens that is generally considered trustworthy? It's fine if it's limited to lagomorphs, but if it also extends to other animals/plants, that's all the better!
Wikipedia is good for this, The licence is what you want, and many people will have checked the animal ID.
look up the two pika species, and the rest are under
Where can I find free authoritative images of different species of Lagomorphs? - Biology
These free, online resources are important tools for the librarian&rsquos kit, giving professionals fast answers from good sources. Librarians don&rsquot need to wade through the millions of jumbled, anonymous, Wiki-style answers provided by online search engines. Speed and authority are often of the essence in reference work, and these 20 databases give librarians fast and authoritative answers for a wide range of topics. The following resources amount to a free electronic reference shelf. They have been grouped into topical subjects.
Introducing Bookshop for Books About Animals & Wildlife
We’re pleased to introduce, Bookshop, an online bookstore with a mission to financially support local, independent bookstores in the U.S. Our belief is that bookstores are essential to a healthy culture and an anchor for our communities.
You can support them by clicking on the “Bookshop” link beside the selected book. A portion of the profit (indicated in the “Add to cart” section before you pay) will be contributed to an earnings pool that will be evenly distributed among independent book shops in the U.S.
If you love reading books about animals as much as we do, then please consider purchasing your books on Bookshop since it supports local book shops who need our help more than ever.
Check out my top recommendations for wildlife books that I’ve enjoyed reading. I hope that you’ll enjoy them as much as I did.
The Symbiotic Habit
Throughout the natural world, organisms have responded to predators, inadequate resources, or inclement conditions by forming ongoing mutually beneficial partnerships--or symbioses--with different species. Symbiosis is the foundation for major evolutionary events, such as the emergence of eukaryotes and plant eating among vertebrates, and is also a crucial factor in shaping many ecological communities. The Symbiotic Habit provides an accessible and authoritative introduction to symbiosis, describing how symbioses are established, function, and persist in evolutionary and ecological time.
Angela Douglas explains the evolutionary origins and development of symbiosis, and illustrates the principles of symbiosis using a variety of examples of symbiotic relationships as well as nonsymbiotic ones, such as parasitic or fleeting mutualistic associations. Although the reciprocal exchange of benefit is the key feature of symbioses, the benefits are often costly to provide, causing conflict among the partners. Douglas shows how these conflicts can be managed by a single controlling organism that may selectively reward cooperative partners, control partner transmission, and employ recognition mechanisms that discriminate between beneficial and potentially harmful or ineffective partners.
The Symbiotic Habit reveals the broad uniformity of symbiotic process across many different symbioses among organisms with diverse evolutionary histories, and demonstrates how symbioses can be used to manage ecosystems, enhance food production, and promote human health.
Invasive species are a subset of non-native (or alien) species, and knowing what species are non-native to a region is a first step to managing invasive species. People have been compiling non-native and invasive species lists ever since these species started causing harm, yet national non-native species lists are neither universal, nor common. Non-native species lists serve diverse purposes: watch lists for preventing invasions, inventory and monitoring lists for research and modeling, regulatory lists for species control, and nonregulatory lists for raising awareness. This diversity of purpose and the lists’ variation in geographic scope make compiling comprehensive lists of established (or naturalized) species for large regions difficult. However, listing what species are non-native in an area helps measure Essential Biodiversity Variables for invasive species monitoring and mount an effective response to established non-native species. In total, 1,166 authoritative sources were reviewed to compile the first comprehensive non-native species list for three large regions of the United States: Alaska, Hawaii, and the conterminous United States (lower 48 States). The list contains 11,344 unique names: 598 taxa for Alaska, 5,848 taxa for Hawaii, and 6,675 taxa for the conterminous United States.
The list is available to the public from U.S. Geological Survey ScienceBase, and the intent, though not a guarantee, is to update the list as non-native species become established in, or are eliminated from, the United States. The list has been used to annotate non-native species occurrence records in the U.S. Geological Survey all-taxa mapping application, Biodiversity Information Serving Our Nation (BISON).
Why Use Field Guides?
Using field guides promotes:
Attention to detail. Children learn to pay attention to detail as they use field guides to look up the plants and animals they encounter.
Is there a single white stripe or a double white stripe from the sparrow's eye? Is the snake's head diamond-shaped? Does the turtle have stripes or spots?
Appreciation for nature. This careful observation leads to a general appreciation of nature, a reverence for living things. In addition to inspiring wonder, this experience can also encourage children to become good stewards of the environment, since they understand that litter and pollution may be harmful to the plants and animals they have learned about.
Interest in species classification, habitats, and characteristics. Observation and identification lead to interest in how species are classified, how plants and animals live in specific habitats, and characteristics of different types of animals. This is a firm foundation for the study of biology.
For many young children, following up their questions and interests with trips to the library to get related books can serve as part of a most effective science curriculum.
Children also like this activity because it uses real books that adults use, too.
A habit of life-long learning. If you model curiosity about living things and use field guides to identify and learn more about insects, plants, trees, and frogs, for example, you are planting a seed for life-long learning.
Appreciation for books as reference material. Children develop ongoing first-hand experience with turning to books for authoritative information. Over time, they will learn to use the indexes, the range maps that show where different species live, and the pictures not only of the trees themselves — but trees' leaves, seeds, and fruit.
An unexpected thing that happened to our family is that in several places where we've lived, we ended up becoming the "go-to family" if a neighbor sighted an unusual snake or bird.
Obviously, we were careful not to project expertise we did not have, but we were more than willing to look through our field guides with our friends in order to help them identify just what kind of snake was in the woodpile or what kind of dragonfly was buzzing their pond. Our kids learned that having learning resources on hand was also a way to be a resource for others.
Yes, frequently we could follow up on the Internet to flesh out even more information about various critters, which was a great way to demonstrate different approaches to research.
Evolution and ontogeny of cardiac morphology and physiology
The evolution of a multi-chambered, high-pressure, closed circulatory system has necessitated a number of important morphological and physiological adaptations. These adaptations have occurred over millions of years of evolution during the transition from water to land, and occur over days to months during the developmental transition from foetal to post-natal life. Here, we discuss these evolutionary and developmental adaptations in the context of heart regeneration.
Several different heart forms are found throughout the animal kingdom from the simplest heart tubes in flies to the more complex multi-chambered hearts of fish, amphibians and mammals. 122,123 These adaptations have enabled the successful transition from water to terrestrial life. All vertebrates possess a closed and multi-chambered heart and cardiac morphogenesis progresses along a highly conserved developmental path involving formation of a linear tube, looping of the tube and finally formation of the chambers. 124 With regards to the final morphology of the heart, fish and amphibian larvae have a two-chambered heart composed of one atrium and one ventricle. The hearts of adult amphibians are composed of three chambers, two atria and one ventricle. The adult amphibian heart is considered as an evolutionary intermediate between the two-chambered heart of fishes and the four-chambered heart of mammals, which are comprised of two atria and two ventricles. 123 Despite differences in the final morphological appearance of the heart in adult vertebrates, the early-embryonic events that drive formation of the linear tube, looping morphogenesis and chamber formation are highly conserved and are governed by evolutionarily conserved pathways 124–129 (Figure 3).
Evolution of heart regenerative capacity, heart morphology and physiology. On the evolutionary tree species in green have the capacity to regenerate the damaged myocardium, species in red have a transient regenerative ability, which is lost during adult life, and species in orange have an incomplete cardiac regenerative ability. In the table data are provided for zebrafish, axolotl or mouse models. The first column describes heart morphology, the second column indicates the presence or absence of a coronary vasculature, the third column indicates the structural maturity and nucleation status of cardiomyocytes and the fourth column indicates the capacity for thermoregulation, as well as the environmental temperature (for zebrafish and axolotl) or body temperature (for neonatal or adult mice) and heart pressure. A, atrium V, ventricle.
In addition to cardiac chamber morphology, mammals also possess a complex coronary system with arterial output and venous return. In contrast, urodele and anuran amphibians have no coronary vessels 130 (Figure 3). The presence of coronary vessels is variable in fish. Zebrafish possess a simple coronary circulation, which develops post-hatching. 131 The coronary arteries in the adult zebrafish heart are located in variable positions on the dorsal surface of the ventricle, 131 which has precluded the establishment of a coronary artery ligation model to study the regenerative response to acute myocardial ischaemia. The presence of a coronary circulation may not only relate to phylogeny but might be more broadly associated with the metabolic requirements of the animal. It has been noted that the hearts of animals with low-metabolic requirements are comprised of only capillaries and veins, whereas animals with increased metabolic demands have a more complex coronary vasculature comprising arteries and veins. 132
Given the fact that cardiac regenerative ability is observed in two-, three- and four-chambered hearts and in hearts with or without a well-developed coronary system, the formation of a multi-chambered heart does not appear to be directly correlated with the loss of cardiac regenerative capacity. Similarly, even if angiogenic responses occur after cardiac injury in zebrafish, neonatal and adult mice, these events may not be playing an essential role in determining cardiac regenerative capacity because cardiac regeneration also occurs in zebrafish larvae and amphibians, which have a very poorly developed coronary vasculature.
The transition from aquatic to terrestrial life necessitated the development of a high-pressure closed circulatory system. 133,134 Indeed, animals that possess regenerative potential in adult life are known to have a low-pressure circulatory system. Similarly, childbirth and childhood in mammals are associated with dramatic increases in ventricular pressure, which increases wall stress. 135 The increased wall stress imposes a higher workload on post-natal cardiomyocytes, which have adapted by undergoing extensive structural and metabolic remodelling during early-post-natal life (see below). Although the significance of these adaptations to a high-pressure circulatory system for cardiac regeneration are still poorly understood, a recent study suggests that ventricular unloading in the adult human heart induces cardiomyocyte cell-cycle re-entry. 136 Therefore, the evolution and development of a high-pressure circulatory system could be a key event driving ultrastructural and metabolic adaptations of the cardiomyocyte, which may have provided a more efficient pump but came at the expense of a loss of regenerative capacity. Conversely, the relief of strong gravitational demands in water may have provided a selective pressure for the evolution of regenerative mechanisms in fish.
It is interesting to note that the capacity for heart regeneration in vertebrates correlates with the appearance of warm-bloodedness (Figure 1). Fishes, amphibians and neonatal rodents lack a competent thermoregulatory system. Moreover, the thermoregulatory system of newborn humans is less efficient than adults. 137 As a consequence, their body temperature is dependent on the environmental temperature. By contrast, adult mammals and humans have developed intrinsic mechanisms to regulate their body temperature 138–140 (Figure 3). Interestingly, analyses of limb regeneration in newts reveal a behavioural bias towards the selection of warmer environmental temperatures that facilitate regeneration. Newts exhibit certain preferences for temperatures, which can change with season or acclimation. The study by Tattersall et al. 141 demonstrated that newts display a preference for warmer temperatures following amputation compared with newts prior to surgery and compared with uninjured conspecific controls. Moreover, in zebrafish, the timing to complete fin regeneration also depends on temperature. 1 Similarly, diminishing the temperature inhibits the regeneration process in planarians. 142 In animal models of brain injury, hypothermia seems to enhance the regeneration of brain tissue. 143 All together these studies suggest that environmental temperature impacts regeneration but a direct analysis of the effect of temperature on cardiac regeneration has not been performed. Nevertheless, given that thermoregulating animals have a metabolic capacity that is four times more efficient than non-thermoregulating species, 2 it is tempting to suggest that these metabolic adaptations may have also come at the expense of regeneration.
Fish and amphibians live in an oxygen poor aquatic environment and their hearts are highly adapted to hypoxia with low-oxygen consumption rates (MO2=5 μmol g −1 h −1 ). 144 Thus, zebrafish display a high-physiological capacity to respond to oscillations in ambient oxygen. The mammalian embryonic environment is also characterized by low-oxygen tension, which contrasts with the high-oxygen concentration that the mammalian heart is exposed to after birth. Thus, the transition from embryonic to post-natal life, as well as the transition from aquatic to terrestrial life, coincides with changes in the oxygenation of cardiomyocytes. Consequently it appears that species with cardiac regenerative capacity reside in a hypoxic environment. Indeed, hypoxia is required for induction of cardiomyocyte proliferation and heart regeneration in zebrafish. 145,146 Recent studies in the mouse also suggest that the post-natal transition to an oxygen-rich environment may play a role in shutting down the cell cycle by activating a DNA damage checkpoint after birth. 147 Genetic fate-mapping experiments performed in the adult mouse heart further indicate that low-metabolic activity and hypoxia are characteristics of cycling cardiomyocytes in the adult heart. 148 Non-regenerative cardiomyocytes appear to be adapted to an oxygen-rich environment, which places different metabolic demands on the heart. As such, there appear to be important links between hypoxia, metabolism, cell-cycle arrest and regulation of regenerative capacity, which require further mechanistic interrogation.
Mammalian cardiomyocytes undergo extensive metabolic remodelling after birth to cope with the high-energy demands of post-natal life. In mice, embryonic and neonatal cardiomyocytes primarily use glycolysis as their major source of ATP 149–154 (Figure 4). However, during the neonatal period, rodent cardiomyocytes undergo a metabolic switch and adult cardiomyocytes generate their energy via mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, which is more efficient than glycolysis. 151,153 During mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, electron leak produces reactive oxygen species. A recent study indicates that the post-natal increase in ROS production leads to cardiomyocyte cell-cycle arrest through the activation of DNA damage response pathway 147 (Figure 4). However, a direct causal mechanism between the metabolic switch, ROS production and cell-cycle arrest was not provided in that study and further elucidation of the mechanisms by which fatty acid oxidation contributes to post-natal cardiomyocyte maturation and/or regulation of regenerative capacity is required. Moreover, it is unclear whether cardiomyocytes from highly regenerative species such as zebrafish have a preference for glycolysis, although one study suggests there is a significantly greater capacity for oxidation of glucose than fatty acids in zebrafish. 155 It would be interesting to determine whether high performance fish, such as tuna, which primarily utilise fatty acids as a metabolic fuel, 156 have a similar regenerative capacity to the adult mammalian heart.
Cardiomyocyte metabolism and heart regeneration. Organisms in red are unable to regenerate the heart after cardiac damage, their energy demand is high and they mainly use oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to produce ATP. OXPHOS induces the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which have been implicated in DNA damage and cell-cycle arrest. Organisms that have a low-energy demand and use anaerobic glycolysis as their main source of ATP production are shown in green.
Structural organisation of cardiomyocytes
At the cellular level, mammalian and non-mammalian vertebrate cardiomyocytes display several differences in terms of contractile protein expression and cardiomyocyte structure. Proteomic analyses comparing zebrafish hearts with neonatal and adult mouse hearts reveal striking differences in the myofilament composition. Interestingly, zebrafish hearts are similar to neonatal mouse hearts and are characterized by an immature myofilament composition that lacks many of the structural proteins present in mature adult cardiomyocytes 157 (Figure 3). The plasticity of zebrafish and neonatal cardiomyocytes and their capacity to dedifferentiate can be linked to their immature sarcomere composition. It is known that proliferative cardiomyocytes in the adult zebrafish and neonatal mouse heart disassemble their sarcomeres following apical resection injury. 18,22,67 Sarcomere disassembly is an important property of proliferating cardiomyocytes. 158 The inability of adult mammalian cardiomyocytes to proliferate could be related to their sarcomeric composition, which has likely adapted to the increased workload of terrestrial and post-natal life but could also provide a physical barrier to de-differentiation and cell-cycle re-entry. This intriguing connection between the cardiomyocyte contractile apparatus and the cell-cycle machinery remains poorly understood and it is currently unclear whether this relationship is purely associative or causal.
Cardiomyocyte nucleation and ploidy
Many investigators in the field have noted the association between cardiomyocyte nucleation/ploidy, proliferation and regenerative capacity. Adult zebrafish and newt cardiomyocytes, as well as embryonic mammalian cardiomyocytes are predominantly mononucleated 159 (Figure 3). In the regenerating adult newt, cardiomyocytes are mostly mononucleated in culture and the majority of these cardiomyocytes can be activated to proliferate. 42 Interestingly, these mononucleated cardiomyocytes give rise to binucleated cardiomyocytes in their first mitosis and these new binucleated cardiomyocytes can also be activated to enter S phase in culture. 42 Thus, the adult newt mononucleated or binucleated cardiomyocytes can proliferate in vitro. 42 In mammalian models, at the end of embryogenesis and during the neonatal period, binucleation begins. In rodents, binucleation occurs during the first 2 weeks after birth 72 and coincides with the loss of regenerative potential 68 (Figure 3). In large mammals, such as sheep and humans, binucleation occurs towards the end of gestation and prior to birth. 105,160,161 The percentage of binucleated cardiomyocytes in the adult human heart is hotly debated and can vary from 30 to 60% of cardiomyocytes depending on the studies. 105,161 However, one consistent finding is that human cardiomyocyte binucleation occurs primarily before birth and the rates of binucleation are lower than other species. In contrast, human cardiomyocytes undergo polyploidy after birth, which is associated with the onset of cardiomyocyte terminal differentiation. 105 While binucleation and/or polyploidization are both associated with cardiomyocyte cell-cycle withdrawal, the physiological significance of this process is unclear. One potential explanation is that this process represents an adaptation to increase cardiomyocyte transcriptional output in response to increased energetic demands associated with the requirement for rapid growth in the post-natal period, although this theory has not been experimentally tested. This theory is, however, consistent with the rate of polyploid cardiomyocytes in birds because interspecies comparisons revealed that most cardiomyocytes in the avian myocardium are polyploid with the frequent appearance of cardiomyocytes containing three to eight nuclei. 162 Polyploid cardiomyocytes appear soon after hatching in birds and accumulate during the first 2 weeks of post-natal development during a rapid cardiac growth phase. 162 Interestingly, the percentage of multinucleated cells is correlated with the growth rate of the birds. 162 Interspecies variability of cardiomyocyte ploidy levels in birds appears to be a result of changes in the cardiac functional load. 162 However, polyploidy is also a characteristic feature of mammalian hepatocytes, which can be either mononuclear or binuclear. 163 Even though 70% of adult hepatocytes in rodents are tetraploid, the liver still has an extraordinary capacity to regenerate from various types of injuries and hepatocytes are capable of undergoing extensive proliferation. 163,164 Interestingly, polyploidy is dispensable for hepatic growth and regeneration in mice. 165 Thus, binucleation and polyploidization are not required for cell-cycle withdrawal and the physiological significance of this process for regeneration still remain poorly understood. Why mammalian cardiomyocytes withdraw from the cell cycle in the perinatal period remains unclear but it is interesting to note that cardiomyopathy occurs in paediatric conditions associated with persistent markers of mitotic activity in cardiomyocytes. 166 Interestingly, heart failure is found in affected individuals, which suggests that the restriction of cardiomyocyte proliferation is required for normal development in post-natal mammals.
Several similarities between non-mammalian vertebrates and young mammals have been noted with regards to the absence of a more sophisticated immune system compared with adult mammals in terms of specificity, speed of onset and adaptive memory. For example, non-mammalian vertebrates lack specialized proteins such as immunoglobulins 167 and the neonatal mammalian immune system has impaired pro-inflammatory functions. 168 Urodele amphibians possess innate immunity but lack a complete adaptive immune system. 3 Experiments performed on limb regeneration suggest that this less sophisticated adaptive immune system is involved in the regulation of regenerative ability in these species. 169 Moreover, in anuran amphibians, tadpole tails are able to regenerate but this ability is lost during the refractory phase, which is associated with changes in the immune response to injury. 170 Immunosuppression restored regenerative ability during the refractory period in the anuran amphibian. 170 Interestingly, macrophages are required for appendage regeneration in zebrafish and urodele amphibians, as well as heart regeneration in neonatal mice. 63,71,169,171,172 Macrophages are present within the infarcted area in both adult and neonatal mice in response to injury but the neonatal heart expands a population of resident cardiac macrophages, which differ from adult macrophages in terms of their origin and immunophenotype. 63,71 Macrophages influence neovascularisation during neonatal heart regeneration but have no direct impact on cardiomyocyte proliferation in this model. 71 Therefore, phylogenetic changes in regenerative capacity are associated with evolutionary changes in the activity of the immune system and there seems to be an inverse relationship between regenerative capacity and the development of a mature immune system. These evolutionary adaptations may have resulted from pressures that permitted the development of adaptive immune mechanisms that promoted animal survival in the face of infectious diseases but resulted in a loss of reparative potential because of excessive inflammation following tissue injury.
Blood clotting, inflammation and fibrosis
As previously described, depending on the animal model, heart injury can result in regeneration or permanent scar formation. Blood clotting is an early feature of the wound healing response and is associated with either regeneration or fibrotic healing depending on the animal model. In some cases, clotting factors provide signals that are required for regeneration. For example, in salamander lens regeneration and in murine liver regeneration, it appears that coagulation and other blood cell-dependant mechanisms, such as platelet activation, provide important signals for cell-cycle re-entry and regeneration. 173,174 Interestingly, the newt lens regenerates, whereas the closely related axolotl lens cannot. 175,176 Clotting factors, such as thrombin, have been implicated in the differential regenerative capacity of the lens in these two amphibian models. 175 Thrombin is also known to induce cell-cycle re-entry in cultured newt myocytes. 177 Other growth factors released from thrombocytes at the site of injury, such as platelet-derived growth factor BB isoform (Pdgf-BB), play important roles in epicardial cell function and coronary vessel formation during zebrafish heart regeneration. 178 Therefore, blood clotting is an important early event in the cardiac regenerative response. However, blood clotting also occurs following coronary artery ligation in adult mammals, where it is associated with early-wound healing in the setting of fibrotic repair. 179 Given that clotting is associated with both tissue repair and regeneration, it is unclear how clotting factors specifically drive regenerative processes instead of permanent scar formation.
Acute inflammation occurs after myocardial injury in regenerative and non-regenerative models. Activation of the innate immune system is one of the first events to occur after heart damage and is required for removal of dead cells and debris in the damaged tissue. 169 Necrotic cells and debris are removed by neutrophils and macrophages at the wound site and these immune cells also release cytokines that initiate a cascade of events culminating in deposition of ECM proteins and connective scar tissue. 169 Inflammation is considered to have a negative impact on heart regeneration by promoting fibrotic scar formation in adults. 78 However, regenerating hearts can also react to injury by mounting an inflammatory response and depositing ECM, resulting in the formation of a transient fibrotic scar. 67,68,180 Moreover, recent studies show a positive role for inflammation in regeneration and repair. For example, the activation of immune signals is known to facilitate skeletal muscle regeneration after injury, and, in the neonatal heart, acute cardiac inflammation is known to be important for the stimulation of angiogenesis and cardiomyocyte proliferation. 63,78,181 The inflammatory factors that distinguish the neonatal regenerative response from the adult reparative response remain poorly defined but several recent studies point to potentially important roles for interleukin-6 and interleukin-13 signalling. 78,182 Therefore, early-inflammatory and -fibrotic responses in the damaged myocardium per se do not hamper heart regeneration and further studies are required to fully elucidate how tissue inflammation can direct either permanent scar formation or heart regeneration.
- Least Concern
- Near Threatened
- Critically Endangered
- Extinct in the Wild
- Data Deficient
- Not Evaluated
The general form of Patagonian maras is that of a long-legged rodent with a body similar to a hoofed animal. Their coat is primarily grayish-brown, with a white patch along the chest and stomach and orange coloration around the flanks and head. It is darker toward the rump, with the exception of a bright white patch of hair that borders their hindquarters. Their coat is stiff, dense and very fine in texture. Patagonian maras have four toes on their front feet and three on their hind feet each toe is equipped with strong claws. Their long ears, short tails and larger size set them apart from other species within the family Caviidae.
Patagonian maras average 27.5 inches (70 centimeters) in length, with a tail of 1.5 to 2 inches (4 to 5 centimeters). They weigh between 17.6 and 35.3 pounds (8 to 16 kilograms).
Patagonian maras inhabit central and southern Argentina. They prefer arid grasslands and brush lands with a great deal of open space. The home range of a mara pair can fluctuate greatly depending upon food availability these drifting ranges typically amount to 242 acres (98 hectares). Maras move in a variety of ways. They may walk, hop in a rabbit-like fashion, gallop or stot — a unique form of locomotion typically exhibited by ungulates, where the animal bounces on all fours.
Patagonian maras are herbivorous, primarily consuming grasses. They also frequently consume cactuses, as well as some seeds, fruits and flowers. Maras are also coprophagous, ingesting their own dung to maximize nutrient absorption. At the Smithsonian's National Zoo, maras are fed rodent chow, greens, fruits, vegetables, nuts and hay.
Patagonian maras are diurnal animals built for running. They travel in mated pairs, with the male aggressively protecting his mate from rivals and predators.
Monogamous for life, Patagonian maras have a unique breeding strategy. Estrus occurs three to four times each year, for a window of only 30 minutes. Gestation lasts around 100 days, with the female typically giving birth to one to three well-developed young. Most maras in the wild produce only one litter annually, although maras in human care can give birth three to four times each year. Offspring are born out in the open but are quickly transferred into a communal burrow. This burrow can be shared with as many as 15 different mara pairs and their offspring. Because males are fiercely protective of their mates, only one mara pair occupies the burrow at any given time. With many young inhabiting the den, female maras recognize their offspring by size, sound and scent communication. Pups may attempt to steal milk from unrelated females, although they are often forcefully driven away. Females take on almost all direct care of their young, while males serve as sentries, protecting the den from potential predators. Young maras will nurse for much longer than most other rodent species — about 75 days — before being weaned.
Patagonian maras can live for approximately 14 years in human care. Their lifespan in the wild is unknown.
Patagonian maras are listed as near threatened on the IUCN Red List, as of a 2008 analysis. The Red Book of Mammals of Argentina also categorizes this species as vulnerable. Patagonian maras occur in at least 12 protected areas within their native range.
The South American lowlands in which maras reside are known as the Pampas. This habitat is rapidly declining. Hunting and habitat loss are the two of the greatest threats to Patagonian maras. The Argentinian agriculture industry has reduced the amount of available habitat for maras, as grasslands are converted into pastures.
Additionally, sheep farming has resulted in competition for resources among the two herbivorous species. Patagonian maras are also hunted for their skins. In Buenos Aires Province, these threats have resulted in the local extirpation of this species.
Business and economic conditions, corporate strategies, management techniques, marketing, advertising, ethics and more.
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Search leading journals in the physical and social sciences, technology, medicine, engineering, the arts, technology, literature, and many other subjects. State of Maine funded.
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Historical literature for the United States and Canada, from 1964 on.
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The only list of deceptive and predatory academic journals. Specialists analyze over 60 behavioral indicators to keep researchers and scholars protected from exploitative publishers.
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Popular ebooks and audiobooks for a variety of devices. State of Maine funded. Use your UNE ID card number as your library card to log in.
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Searches across the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Methodology Register, and Cochrane Clinical Answers.
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Information for all levels of education and educational specialty, including technology, bilingual education, health education, and testing, as well as issues in administration, funding, and policy. State of Maine funded.
International biomedical literature, including MEDLINE records. Commonly used to track drugs and devices, and to support systematic reviews.
Articles and other resources on economic development, business planning, finance, marketing, market research, and management. State of Maine funded.
Information on agriculture, ecology, energy, natural resources, and other environmental topics. State of Maine funded.
Education research and information from the U.S. Department of Education.
ProQuest search of the ERIC database. Education research and information from the U.S. Department of Education.
A synthesis of nutritional research on important dietetic practice questions.
Create an individual account using your UNE email address to access practice exams for the USMLE, PANCE, NAPLEX, NBDE, board certification exams, and review medical subjects.
Drug information from databases including Drug Facts and Comparisons, Briggs’ Drugs in Pregnancy and Lactation, REMS, Review of Natural Products, and more. Offers interactive tools such as product availability, interactions, drug ID, and calculators.
Information on drama, music, art history, and filmmaking, including the Wilson Art Index and the Répertoire International de Littérature Musicale (RILM). State of Maine funded.
Resources on food sciences, pet foods, food psychology, food economics, food safety and more. State of Maine funded.
Academic and alternative resources on gender, sexuality, religion, societal roles, feminism, masculinity, eating disorders, healthcare, and the workplace.
Global perspectives on international relations and current world events.
International newspapers, newswires, blogs, and news sites. State of Maine funded.
Information on environmental concerns such as global warming, energy conservation, natural resources, and pollution.
Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine and updates.
Healthcare journals and clinical research titles, instructional videos, dissertations and working papers.
Nursing and allied health journals, reference content, pamphlets and videos. State of Maine funded.
Information on public health and safety, hospitals, finance, personnel management, insurance, population studies, labor relations and law.
U.S. government publications and reports back to 1754 as well as treaties, constitutions, case law, classic treatises, international trade, and foreign relations Getting Started with HeinOnline (tutorial) and Searching 101 (video).
Osteopathic journals and books curated by the Museum of Osteopathic Medicine at A.T. Still University,
Archive of The New York Times: 1851-2007, The Washington Post: 1877-1994, Guardian and Observer: 1791-2003, Hartford Courant: 1764-1985, and New York Amsterdam News: 1922-1993.
Population, work and welfare, economics, governance, and international relations statistics from colonial times to present.
Evidence-based drug therapy information to improve patient outcomes, enhance transitions of care, and increase HCAHP scores.
Videos of real patients and therapists in clinical settings for students and faculty of Physical and Occupational Therapy. Starting Guide video
Health science-specific instruction content for teaching foundational skills such as information literacy and critical thinking.
Tools for teaching information literacy and critical thinking skills including standards based videos, tutorials and quizzes.
Critically evaluate the world’s leading journals with quantifiable, statistical information based on citation data.
Back issues of core scholarly journals as well as books and primary sources in the humanities, social sciences, & sciences.
Films, documentaries, and training videos from PBS, Criterion Collection, California Newsreel, HBO, BBC and more.
Professional and career development resources on organizational dynamics, leadership, and continuing education. State of Maine funded.
Prepare for college and graduate school admissions and certification and licensing exams with practice tests, tutorials, books, and more. State of Maine funded.
Law reviews, legal newspapers, specialty publications, bar association journals, and international legal journals.
Point-of-care drug information used in many hospitals integrates with UpToDate. Video tutorial. Mobile app instructions.
Current and accurate point-of-care information across clinical knowledge areas in dentistry.
Library and information science journals, books, research reports and more.
Literature research resources on authors and criticism. State of Maine funded.
Medicine and health sciences textbooks and multimedia resources from publisher Lippincott.
Osteopathic Medicine textbooks and supporting titles from publisher Lippincott
Maine newspapers including the Bangor Daily News and Portland Press Herald, plus selected coverage of other regional sources. State of Maine funded.
Abstracts and citations from Portland and Maine newspapers and magazines including Down East, MaineBiz, Portland Monthly, and the Portland Phoenix. Compiled by Portland Public Library Portland Room staff.
Online language learning software for Spanish and French.
Current and historical articles, reviews, abstracts and book titles from the American Mathematical Society. MathSciNet tutorials.
Critical appraisals of new prescription drugs and comparative reviews of drugs for common diseases. Mobile app instructions.
A ProQuest search of MEDLINE, the U.S. National Library of Medicine’s biomedical database.
PubMed search of MEDLINE, the US National Library of Medicine database of biomedical literature. PubMed user guide, PubMed online training, “Find articles on a topic” interactive tutorial.
Merriam-Webster’s Unabridged Dictionary, Law Dictionary, Medical Dictionary, Thesaurus, Language Translation tools and more. State of Maine funded.
Evidence-based clinical reference for management of medications, diseases, and toxicology, plus lab test and patient education information. Mobile app instructions.
Detailed information on journals including editorial contact information, frequency, circulation, subscription prices and submission guidelines.
Literature, language, linguistics, and folklore records from the Modern Language Association.
Evidence-based resource on dietary supplements, natural medicines, and complementary and integrative therapies.
Resources to prepare for your next rotation and support for coping with the pressures of resident life from the New England Journal of Medicine.
Full text of the national newspaper of record for the last three years. State of Maine funded.
International and U.S. newspapers as well as images, and radio and TV broadcasts and transcripts. State of Maine funded.
News, business, and legal sources from LexisNexis® including U.S. Supreme Court decisions dating back to 1790. Nexis Uni tutorials.
Archive of Canadian and American women’s published and unpublished diaries and correspondence from Colonial times through 1950.
Popular reading database of fiction and non-fiction book recommendations for K – 8 readers, as well as reading lists and curriculum-driven material for educators. State of Maine funded.
Popular reading database of fiction and non-fiction book recommendations for high school through adult readers. State of Maine funded.
Scholarly literature, clinical training videos, reference materials and evidence-based resources for students in nursing and allied health professions.
A point-of-care clinical evidence and information on diseases and conditions, skills and procedures, drug information, patient education, and practice guidelines. Video tutorial. Mobile app instructions.
Technical literature on marine biology and physical oceanography, fisheries, aquaculture, meteorology and geology, plus environmental and legislative topics. State of Maine funded.
Key dissertations and theses from American universities 1902 to present. Links to full-text when available through institutional repositories.
Multiple perspectives on current events and social issues from topic overviews, articles, primary source documents, court cases and more. State of Maine funded.
Digital library with current osteopathic literature and historical documents.
Abstracts of systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials and other resources relevant to occupational therapy interventions.
Complete OED online, includes present-day meanings and also the history of words and their usage.
Online access to medical texts and videos from Oxford University Press
FDA approved drug information including interactions, side effects, recommended dosages, contraindications, and more. Free site, but you must register to use it.
Timely, concise, peer-reviewed drug therapy information written by pharmacists.
Textbooks, interactive NAPLEX review, case studies, abstracts and news sources from the American Pharmacists Association (APhA).
Treatment techniques and research from academic journals and magazines in physical therapy, physical fitness, and sports medicine. State of Maine funded.
Concise recommendations and advice on new developments in drug therapy.
Humanities and social sciences books and articles from university presses and scholarly societies.
Multidisciplinary database of scholarly and trade articles, news sources, magazines and more covering all major academic subject areas.
Peer-reviewed scholarly articles in psychology published by the American Psychological Association (APA) and affiliated journals.
Psychiatric resources from American Psychiatric Publishing including the DSM-5® and The American Journal of Psychiatry. Mobile app instructions.
Training videos featuring leading practitioners in psychotherapy.
Peer-reviewed literature in behavioral science and mental health from journals, books, dissertations, and reports. From the American Psychological Association.
Psychological measures, scales, surveys, and other instruments essential to research in the behavioral and social sciences. From the American Psychological Association.
Core literature public health, including biostatistics, environmental health sciences, epidemiology, and behavioral sciences.
PubMed search of MEDLINE, the US National Library of Medicine database of biomedical literature. PubMed user guide, PubMed online training, “Find articles on a topic” interactive tutorial.
Free archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature at the U.S. National Institutes of Health’s National Library of Medicine (NIH/NLM). PMC FAQs, MEDLINE, PubMed, and PubMed Central (PMC) – how are they different?
Medical, nursing, and allied health book titles from key health science publishers. Offers an extensive selection of Doody’s Core Titles.
Build and manage online surveys, customize data collection forms, create longitudinal studies, administer multi-site studies, export data to statistical packages and more. Contact UNE administrator shown on REDCap page to create account.
Collect and manage references, easily insert citations into papers, and automatically format reference lists. Sharing tools for groups. RefWorks basics video tutorial.
Evidence-based clinical reference tool for rehabilitation clinicians at the point-of-care. Video Tutorial.
Magazines and academic journals covering religion and the related areas of philosophy and anthropology. State of Maine funded.
Research journals in business, humanities, social sciences, and science, technology and medicine.
Topic overviews, biographies, articles and detailed experiments covering all major science topics. State of Maine funded.
Scientific, technical, and medical research from scholarly journal publisher Elsevier.
References, substances, and reactions in chemistry and related sciences. You’ll need to create your own username and password to use SciFinder. SciFinder Tutorials.
Citations and abstracts from scholarly research journals across the sciences. Advanced tools for citation analysis and journal ranking. Video Tutorials.
High quality medical illustrations and animations depicting anatomy, physiology, histology, surgery and other medical topics.
Journals covering all areas of social work, from the National Association of Social Workers, Inc. Using Social Work Abstracts video tutorial.
Research journals and other publications in sociology and related disciplines.
Articles from sports and sports medicine journals, including exercise physiology, coaching, and training and conditioning.
Videos which portray mental health issues and diagnoses in educational and treatment settings, with assessment tools guided by the DSM 5 and ICD 10 .
Access the electronic versions of select Thieme Atlases and Textbooks.
Citations and abstracts from toxicology journals, papers, books, reports and more.
Primary and secondary U.S. history sources from publishers Macmillan, Scribner and others. State of Maine funded.
Detailed information on journals and magazines published throughout the world.
Information on stocks, mutual funds, options and convertible securities. State of Maine Funded.
Detailed, Interactive 3D atlas of the human body. First time access will take about 30 seconds to load. Video tutorials. Mobile app instructions.
Zoological literature from professional journals, magazines, newsletters, books and more.
Search the collections of the world’s libraries. Limit by location to find holdings near you.
Encyclopedias and Dictionaries
Grzimek’s Animal Life Encyclopedia [via Gale Virtual Reference Library]
Extensive, completely revised and updated 17-volume version of the original work published in Germany in 1960. Incorporates recent developments in the animal world as noted by prominent advisors and contributors from the scientific community. Volume 1 covers Lower metazoans and lesser deuterostomes and volume 2 is on Protostomes. Volume 3 is about Insects. Volumes 4-5 are both concerning Fishes. Volume 6 pertains to Amphibians and volume 7 is about Reptiles. Volumes 8-11 are all concerning Birds. Volumes 12-16 are on Mammals and lastly, volume 17 is the cumulative index.
•Each entry by family includes taxonomic placement & brief details including thumbnail description, size, number of genera/species, habitat, conservation status, & distribution map.
•Detailed sections describe: evolution & systematics physical characteristics distribution habitat behavior feeding ecology & diet reproductive biology conservation status significance to humans and end with lengthy species accounts