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Structure of Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
What is deoxyribonucleic acid - definition
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA or DNA) is the genetic material of all cellular organisms and most viruses. This genetic material carries the information needed to drive protein synthesis and replication.
Protein synthesis is nothing more than the production of proteins that cells and viruses need for metabolism and development.
Replication is the set of reactions whereby DNA makes a copy of itself each time a cell divides and transmits its information to daughter cells. In almost all cellular organisms DNA is organized in the form of chromosomes located in the cell nucleus.
DNA is responsible for the transmission of genetic characteristics (eye color, skin, hair, physiognomy, etc.) among living beings.
Adhesin, cytosine, guanine and thymine are the four bases found in the structure of DNA.
DNA transport of information
DNA has the ability to pass its information to RNA. This occurs as follows:
There is an RNA that will carry the message of this information, for example eye color, skin, hair, etc. It is called messenger RNA (mRNA) and will be responsible for bringing this information to protein synthesis.
Each gene has a nucleotide sequence that is not repeated in any other gene. DNA replication occurs under the control of a special enzyme called DNA polymerase.
In this way, the two polypeptide chains of DNA gradually separate, while the nucleotides of DNA fit together on one side and the other. Thus each chain forms a new complementary chain and the parent molecule self-preserves with each of its halves of the daughter molecule.
Last reviewed: 12/05/2018
By Elaine Barbosa de Souza
Undergraduate student in Biological Sciences, Methodist University of São Paulo.