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This spring we have recieved from a local Botanical garden in Southern Germany a pack of seeds with the label "surprise". We could grow one plant from the seeds, the seeds looked like "pepper" = Paprika Capsicum annuum seeds. The plant got about 50 cm high and bore one fruit of 5 cm length including the trunk. The leaf in the picture has 10 cm total length. It has a very rough backside but not really hairy one. Also the upper side feels rough but there are no hairs. Also some yellow flower can be seen.
Initially I thought it is some capsicum so I cut it but was surprised when I saw the thick pulp. The skin is also quite strong and like very soft leather. It has a nice sweetish taste and some remembrance of lemon in taste but also some exotic "veggie" note. What could that plant be?
After searching the web my idea was that it could be Solanum sessiliflorum DUNAL, that is Amazonian tomato or "cocona". But I am not sure at all. Any hints appreciated!
Potato (Solanum tuberosum)
Solanum is the largest genus in the Solanaceae Family with an estimated 1,400 species. It is also one of the largest genera of flowering plants. Below are the classifications of the potato, and two phylogenetic trees.
Domain: Eukarya – Organisms with membrane-bound organelles and a true nucleus.
Phylum: Anthophyta – Flowering Plants
Subkingdom: T racheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision: Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division: Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Family: Solanaceae – Potato family
Genus: Solanum – Nightshade
Species: Solanum tuberosum
Common names: Potato, Tater, Spud, Tuber
This is a framework phylogeny of the family Solanaceae. It is based upon molecular data of both chloroplast and nuclear DNA. The red pointer indicates a strongly supported monophyletic group.
This is a schematic phyogenetic tree of the genera of Solanum. To see the different species of each genera, click HERE.
This tree is based upon molecular data from chloroplast ndhF. It identifies 13 subgenera in the Solanum genus.
Check out the Interesting Facts page to learn about the lighter side of potatoes!
A special thanks to the Natural History Museum for letting me use the tables, and to the 10 references below who worked on it. Visit here for more information about the phylogeny of potatoes.
Bohs, L. (2005) Major clades in Solanum based in
ndhF sequences. Pp. 27-49 in R. C. Keating, V. C.
Hollowell, & T. B. Croat (eds.), A festschrift for
William G. D’Arcy: the legacy of a taxonomist.
Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri
Botanical Garden, Vol. 104. Missouri Botanical
Garden Press, St. Louis.
D’Arcy, W. G. (1979) The classification of the
Solanaceae. J. G. Hawkes, R. N. Lester, and A. D.
Skelding (eds.), The biology and taxonomy of the
Solanaceae. Academic Press, London. Pages 3-47
D’Arcy, W. G. (1972) Solanaceae studies II:
typification of subdivisions of Solanum. Ann.
Missouri Bot. Gard. 59: 262-278
D’Arcy, W. G. (1991) The Solanaceae since 1976,
with a review of its biogeography. Pages 75-137 in:
J. G. Hawkes, R. N. Lester, M. Nee, and N. Estrada
(eds.), Solanaceae III: taxonomy, chemistry,
evolution. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, U.K. Pages
Fay, M. F., R. G. Olmstead, J. E. Richardson, E.
Santiago, G. T. Prance, and M. W. Chase (1998)
Molecular data support the inclusion of
Duckeodendron cestroides in Solanaceae. Kew
Bulletin 53: 203-212
Hunziker, A. T. (1979) South American Solanaceae: a
synoptic survey. J.G. Hawkes, R. N. Lester, and A.
D. Skelding (eds.), The biology and taxonomy of the
Solanaceae. Academic Press, London.
Hunziker, A. T. (2001) Genera Solanacearum. A. R.
G. Ganter, Ruggell. Pages 49-85.
Olmstead, R. G. and J. D. Palmer (1992) A chloroplast
DNA phylogeny of the Solanaceae: subfamilial
relationships and character evolution. Ann. Missouri
Bot. Gard. 79:346-360
Olmstead, R. G., and J. A. Sweere (1994) Combining
data in phylogenetic systematics: an empirical
approach using three molecular data sets in the
Solanaceae. Systematic Biology 43:467-481
Arabidopsisas a model plant for research
Arabidopsis has served as a model plant for basic plant research due to its small size, self-pollination, short life cycle, ease of propagation and genetic transformation . Additionally, its small genome and the availability of its genome sequence made it a favorite for genetic and molecular studies. The sheer volume and extent of Arabidopsis-related research and integration of genetic, molecular, biochemical, genomic and morphological data from Arabidopsis provided insights into many universal aspects of plant biology. Due to a high level of synteny (Box 1) between the genomes of various plant species, the Arabidopsis genome also provided information on the structure of other Eurosid genomes .
In spite of these advantages, Arabidopsis is an 'atypical' plant (Figure 2). Its small genome and features such as leaf morphology, fruit characteristics and plant architecture differ from most agriculturally important plants . While Arabidopsis is excellent for research in basic plant biology, it is not amenable to investigations of domestication or crop improvement through selective breeding. The ongoing 1001 Arabidopsis genome project aims to look at natural selection and alleles underlying phenotypic diversity across the entire genome and the entire species . Mostly the questions related to domestication and crop improvement have been investigated in monocot cereal crops such as maize and rice [36–38]. Genome sequences of other agriculturally and economically important plant species are needed to answer major questions about genome function and genome evolution, and application of genomic information to the practical problems of yield and quality enhancement. Consistent with this, the US National Plant Genome Initiative, established in 1998, also made a call for genome sequences of every major plant of economical importance.
Comparison of Arabidopsis , tomato and maize. Leaf morphology, fruit morphology and inflorescence architecture are diverse between Arabidopsis, tomato and maize.
Solanum Family of Plants
Nightshade (Solanum dulcamara), also called bittersweet or woody nightshade as well as S. nigrum, or black nightshade, are members of this genus. Both contain solanine, a toxic alkaloid that, when ingested in large doses, can cause convulsions and even death. Interestingly, the deadly belladonna nightshade (Atropa belladonna) is not in the Solanum genus but is a member of the Solanaceae family.
Other plants within the Solanum genus also contain solanine but are regularly consumed by humans. Potatoes are a prime example. The solanine is most concentrated in the foliage and the green tubers once the potato is mature, solanine levels are low and safe to consume as long as it is cooked.
Tomato and eggplant are also important food crops that have been cultivated for centuries. They, too, contain toxic alkaloids, but are safe for consumption once they are fully ripe. In fact, many of the food crops of this genus contain this alkaloid. These include:
Solanum Plant Family Ornamentals
There are a plethora of ornamentals included in this genus. Some of the most familiar are:
- (S. aviculare)
- False Jerusalem cherry (S. capsicastrum)
- Chilean potato tree (S. crispum) (S. laxum) (S. pseudocapsicum) (S. rantonetii)
- Italian jasmine or St. Vincent lilac (S. seaforthianum)
- Paradise flower (S. wendlanandii)
There are also a number of Solanum plants used primarily in the past by native people or in folk medicine. Giant devil’s fig is being studied for treatment of seborrhoeic dermatitis, and in the future, who knows what medical uses may be found for Solanum plants. For the most part though, Solanum medical information primarily concerns poisonings which, while rare, can be fatal.
NEET Coaching : Biology- Living World
1. Which of the following is incorrect regarding scientific names?
1) These are also known as common names
2) These ensure that each organism has only one name
3) These have two components – the generic name and specific epithet
4) These are universally accepted names
2. According to binomial nomenclature, every living organism has
1) Two scientific names with single component
2) One scientific name with two components
3) Two names, one Latin and other common
4) One common name with three components
3. Which of the following is incorrect w.r.t. Species?
1) A group of individual organisms with fundamental similarities
2) Two different species breed together to produce fertile offsprings
3) Human beings belong to the species sapiens
4) Panthera has many specific epithet as tigris, leo and pardus
4. Which of the following features are not shown by scientific names of various organism?
1) They consists of two components
2) They have Latin origin
3) They always have “linn” abbreviation at the end of second component
4) They are printed in italics
5. The correct sequence of taxonomic study of a newly discovered organism is
1) First classification then identification, nomenclature and characterization
2) First identification then classifying organism and then characterizations and nomenclature
3) First nomenclature then characterization, identification and classification
4) First characterisation then identification and classification and then nomenclature
6. Which one of the following statements given below is not included in universal rules of nomenclature?
1) Generic names and specific epithet should be in Latin words
2) Generic name is immediately followed by name of taxonomists who described it firstly
3) Generic name must begin with capital letter
4) All letters of the specific name must be small
7. Match the following columns
a. Binomial nomenclature (i) Carolus Linnaeus
b. Generic name (ii) Muscidae
c. Family (iii) Panthera
d. Systema naturae
1) a(i), b(iii), c(iii), d(ii)
2) a(i), b(iii), c(ii), d(i)
3) a(ii), b(i), c(i), d(iii)
4) a(iii), b(i), c(ii), d(i)
8. Cat and dog are placed in which families respectively
1) Felidae and Hominidae
2) Muscidae and Felidae
3) Poaceae and Canidae
4) Felidae and Canidae
9. Which one of the following criteria is/are essential and form the basis of classical taxonomic studies?
1) Ecological information of organisms
2) Development process
3) External and internal structure
4) External structure
10. In taxonomic hierarchy, which of the following group of taxa will have less number of similarities as compared to other?
1) Solanaceae, Convolvulaceae and Poaceae
2) Polymoniales, Poales and Sapindales
3) Solanum, Petunia and Atropa
4) Leopard, tiger and lion
11. Taxonomic categories which come lower to the rank of class are
1) Order, phylum, family, species
2) Order, family, genus, species
3) Division, family, order, genus
4) Order, division, genus, species
12. A place used for storing, preservation and exhibition of both plants and animals is known as
2) Botanical Garden
13. Herbarium consists of
1) Collection of living plants
2) Collection of plant and animal specimens preserved in the containers
3) Preserved insects in boxes after collecting killing and pinning
4) Herbarium sheets carrying dried, pressed and preserved plant specimens on them
14. Key is
1) A form of herbaria
2) A type of educational institute
3) A taxonomical aid used for identifying various organisms
4) Taxonomic category
15. In zoological parks, animals are
1) Kept and preserved in containers or jars
2) Preserved in boxes after killing
3) Kept in protected environments under human care
4) Stuffed and then preserved
16. Carolus Linnaeus is the father of taxonomy because of one of his contributions
1) Genera Plantarum
2) Binomial nomenclature
3) Described nearly ten thousand plants and animal species
4) Die Naturlichen Pflanzen Familien
17. In which of the following pair of category, greater is the difficulty of determining the relationship to other taxa
at the same level, thus, the problem of classification becomes more complex?
1) Genus and species
2) Variety and genus
3) Division and phylum
4) Species and family
18. Rice, cereals, monocots and plants represent
1) Different taxa at different level
2) Same taxa of different category
3) Different category of same taxa
4) Same category for different taxa
19. Potato and brinjal belong to the genus Solanum, which reflects that
1) They belong to single species
2) They are a group of related species
3) They both are morphologically and structurally similar to each other in all respects
4) They can always produce fertile hybrid
20. Mark the incorrect pair.
1) Hydra – Budding
2) Flatworm – Regeneration
3) Amoeba – Fragmentation
4) Yeast – Budding
21. Which of the following is incorrect for reproduction?
1) Unicellular organisms reproduce by cell division
2) Reproduction is a characteristic of all living organisms
3) In unicellular organisms, reproduction and growth are linked together
4) Non-living objects are incapable of reproducing
22. Mark the incorrect statement w.r.t. metabolism.
1) Microbes exhibit the metabolism
2) It is the property of all living forms
3) The metabolic reactions can be demonstrated in-vitro
4) It is not a defining feature of life forms
23. Which statement is false about the growth shown by non-living objects?
1) The growth occurs from outside
2) The growth is reversible
3) The growth is due to the accumulation of material on the surface
4) The growth is intrinsic
The Genus Solanum: An Ethnopharmacological, Phytochemical and Biological Properties Review
Over the past 30 years, the genus Solanum has received considerable attention in chemical and biological studies. Solanum is the largest genus in the family Solanaceae, comprising of about 2000 species distributed in the subtropical and tropical regions of Africa, Australia, and parts of Asia, e.g., China, India and Japan. Many of them are economically significant species. Previous phytochemical investigations on Solanum species led to the identification of steroidal saponins, steroidal alkaloids, terpenes, flavonoids, lignans, sterols, phenolic comopunds, coumarins, amongst other compounds. Many species belonging to this genus present huge range of pharmacological activities such as cytotoxicity to different tumors as breast cancer (4T1 and EMT), colorectal cancer (HCT116, HT29, and SW480), and prostate cancer (DU145) cell lines. The biological activities have been attributed to a number of steroidal saponins, steroidal alkaloids and phenols. This review features 65 phytochemically studied species of Solanum between 1990 and 2018, fetched from SciFinder, Pubmed, ScienceDirect, Wikipedia and Baidu, using "Solanum" and the species' names as search terms ("all fields").
Keywords: Ethnopharmacology Phytochemistry Solanaceae Solanum Steroidal saponins and alkaloids.
6. Potential Interaction of Solanum tuberosum with Other Life Forms
Solanum tuberosum is known to interact with a wide variety of fungi, bacteria, nematode, and insect species, many of which are important pests and disease-causing agents. Several publications provide extensive reviews of fungal and fungal-like (Forbes and Landeo 2006 Platt and Peters 2006 Termorshuizen 2007), bacterial (Lebecka et al. 2006), virus and viroid (Jeffries et al. 2006 Valkonen 2007), insect and nematode (Abdelhaq 2006 Mugniéry and Phillips 2007 Radcliffe and Lagnaoui 2007) pests of S. tuberosum. A list of species known to interact with S. tuberosum in Canada can be found in Table 3.
Late blight is prevalent worldwide and has been one of the most significant diseases for potato production (Forbes and Landeo 2006). High pest pressure occurs regularly in British Columbia, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada 2005). Other major fungal pathogens in Canada include early blight, pink rot (Phytophthora erythroseptica Pethybr.), Fusarium dry rot (Fusarium spp. ), Pythium leak (Pythium spp. ), black scurf (Rhizoctonia solani Kühn), and silver scurf (Helminthosporium solani Dur. & Mont.) (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada 2005).
The actinomycete known as common scab (Streptomyces scabies (Thaxter) (Waksman and Henrici)) is of prime importance for non-irrigated potato production in eastern Canada (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada 2005). The causative agent of aerial stem rot and bacterial soft rot, Pectobacterium cartovorum subsp. cartovorum (Jones 1901) Hauben et al. 1999 emend. Gardan et al. 2003, often in association with several of the fungal diseases listed above, is important in Canada for its role in tuber decay. Significant progress has been made towards the eradication of bacterial ring rot in Canada over the past few decades.
Major insect pests in Canada include aphids, tarnished plant bug (Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois)), potato leaf hopper (Empoasca fabae (Harris)), potato flea beetle (Epitrix cucumeris Harris), European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis ( Hübner )), Colorado potato beetle, wireworms, and flea beetle (Epitrix tuberis Gentner) (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada 2005). In addition to causing crop damage, aphids and other insects can act as vectors for pathogens that infect S. tuberosum (Atlantic Potato Committee 2007 Radcliffe and Lagnaoui 2007). A number of viruses are spread through aphids, including PVY and PLRV . The aster leafhopper (Macrosteles quadrilineatus Forbes (fascifrons)) transmits aster yellows, which causes potato purple-top wilt (Bohl and Johnson 2010). Insects can also vector bacterial diseases, although bacteria can only survive on insects for a few days (van der Wolf and De Boer 2007).