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Do body lotions enter into bloodstream of people? And how do they do it?

Do body lotions enter into bloodstream of people? And how do they do it?


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very disturbing: bombastic tabloid-style writing in capital and the content is doubtful. If it was correct or close "does it really take something like 26 seconds for a body lotion to enter into bloodstream?", you select a lotion with very high level of fat -- now your heart will pump blood with a very high-level of fat, possible source for heart failure. If you have a dry skin and you put 40%-fat lotion to your skin, it makes it more flexible. I am very-very skeptical whether any fat gets into your bloodstream. I am new to things such as blood lipids (blood fats) and mechanisms how the body lotions really penetrate into the skin. How? And which factors determine the time and does any get actually into bloodstream and after which kind of processes by the body? Is this just a hoax?


Lotions, like any other drug, can effectively enter the blood system. However, the fraction of the applied lotion that actually enters is really small, and it only achieves a significant concentration in the zone near the application. The skin, if healthy, offers a very high resistance to the passage of substances. Moreover, the bloodstream actually dilutes even more the little fraction it achieves to enter, further reducing its effects. If the skin is damaged the penetration is greater, though you'll never be able to get drunk by dropping booze in an injury.


Full-Body CT Scans - What You Need to Know

Using a technology that "takes a look" at people's insides and promises early warnings of cancer, cardiac disease, and other abnormalities, clinics and medical imaging facilities nationwide are touting a new service for health-conscious people: "Whole-body CT screening." This typically involves scanning the body from the chin to below the hips with a form of X-ray imaging that produces cross-sectional images.

The technology used is called "X-ray computed tomography" (CT), sometimes referred to as "computerized axial tomography" (CAT). A number of different types of X-ray CT systems are being promoted for various types of screening. For example, "multi-slice" CT (MSCT) and "electron beam" CT (EBCT) - also called "electron beam tomography" (EBT) - are X-ray CT systems that produce images rapidly and are often promoted for screening the buildup of calcium in arteries of the heart.

CT, MSCT and EBCT all use X-rays to produce images representing "slices" of the body - like the slices of a loaf of bread. Each image slice corresponds to a wafer-thin section which can be viewed to reveal body structures in great detail.

CT is recognized as an invaluable medical tool for the diagnosis of disease, trauma, or abnormality in patients with signs or symptoms of disease. It's also used for planning, guiding, and monitoring therapy. What's new is that CT is being marketed as a preventive or proactive health care measure to healthy individuals who have no symptoms of disease.

No Proven Benefits for Healthy People

Taking preventive action, finding unsuspected disease, uncovering problems while they are treatable, these all sound great, almost too good to be true! In fact, at this time the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) knows of no scientific evidence demonstrating that whole-body scanning of individuals without symptoms provides more benefit than harm to people being screened. The FDA is responsible for assuring the safety and effectiveness of such medical devices, and it prohibits manufacturers of CT systems to promote their use for whole-body screening of asymptomatic people. The FDA, however, does not regulate practitioners and they may choose to use a device for any use they deem appropriate.

Compared to most other diagnostic X-ray procedures, CT scans result in relatively high radiation exposure. The risks associated with such exposure are greatly outweighed by the benefits of diagnostic and therapeutic CT. However, for whole-body CT screening of asymptomatic people, the benefits are questionable:

  • Can it effectively differentiate between healthy people and those who have a hidden disease?
  • Do suspicious findings lead to additional invasive testing or treatments that produce additional risk with little benefit?
  • Does a "normal" finding guarantee good health?

Many people don't realize that getting a whole body CT screening exam won't necessarily give them the "peace of mind" they are hoping for, or the information that would allow them to prevent a health problem. An abnormal finding, for example, may not be a serious one, and a normal finding may be inaccurate. CT scans, like other medical procedures, will miss some conditions, and "false" leads can prompt further, unnecessary testing.

Points to consider if you are thinking of having a whole-body screening:

  • Whole-body CT screening has not been demonstrated to meet generally accepted criteria for an effective screening procedure.
  • Medical professional societies have not endorsed whole-body CT scanning for individuals without symptoms.
  • CT screening of high-risk individuals for specific diseases such as lung cancer or colon cancer is currently being studied.
  • The radiation from a CT scan may be associated with a very small increase in the possibility of developing cancer later in a person's life.
  • The FDA provides additional information regarding whole-body CT screening on its Computed Tomography (CT) Web site.

FDA's Recommendation:

Before having a CT screening procedure, carefully investigate and consider the potential risks and benefits and discuss them with your physician.


What Are the Short-Term Effects of Hallucinogens?

Ingesting hallucinogenic drugs can cause users to see images, hear sounds, and feel sensations that seem real but do not exist. Their effects typically begin within 20 to 90 minutes of ingestion and can last as long as 12 hours. Experiences are often unpredictable and may vary with the amount ingested and the user’s personality, mood, expectations, and surroundings. The effects of hallucinogens like LSD can be described as drug-induced psychosis—distortion or disorganization of a person’s capacity to recognize reality, think rationally, or communicate with others. Users refer to LSD and other hallucinogenic experiences as “trips” and to acute adverse or unpleasant experiences as “bad trips.” On some trips, users experience sensations that are enjoyable and mentally stimulating and that produce a sense of heightened understanding. Bad trips, however, include terrifying thoughts and nightmarish feelings of anxiety and despair that include fears of losing control, insanity, or death.

Like LSD and psilocybin, DMT produces its effects through action at serotonin (5-HT) receptors in the brain (Strassman, 1996). Some research has suggested that DMT occurs naturally in the human brain in small quantities, leading to the hypothesis that release of endogenous DMT may be involved in reports of alien abductions, spontaneous mystical experiences, and near-death experiences, but this remains controversial (Barker, 2012).

Specific short-term effects of LSD, psilocybin, peyote, DMT, and ayahuasca include:

  • Increased blood pressure, heart rate, and body temperature
  • Dizziness and sleeplessness
  • Loss of appetite, dry mouth,and sweating
  • Numbness, weakness, and tremors
  • Impulsiveness and rapid emotional shifts that can range from fear to euphoria, with transitions so rapid that the user may seem to experience several emotions simultaneously
  • Feelings of relaxation (similar to effects of low doses of marijuana)
  • Nervousness, paranoia, and panic reactions
  • Introspective/spiritual experiences
  • Misidentification of poisonous mushrooms resembling psilocybin could lead to unintentional, potentially fatal poisoning
  • Increased body temperature and heart rate
  • Uncoordinated movements (ataxia)
  • Profound sweating
  • Flushing
  • Increased heart rate
  • Agitation
  • Hallucinations frequently involving radically altered environments as well as body and spatial distortions
  • Increased blood pressure
  • Severe vomiting (induced by the tea)
  • Profoundly altered state of awareness and perceptions of otherworldly imagery

Short-Term General Effects of Hallucinogens

Sensory Effects

  • Hallucinations, including seeing, hearing, touching, or smelling things in a distorted way or perceiving things that do not exist
  • Intensified feelings and sensory experiences (brighter colors, sharper sounds)
  • Mixed senses (“seeing” sounds or “hearing” colors)
  • Changes in sense or perception of time (time goes by slowly)

Physical Effects


Everything you need to know about nicotine

The safety and long-term health effects of using e-cigarettes or other vaping products still aren’t well known. In September 2019, federal and state health authorities began investigating an outbreak of a severe lung disease associated with e-cigarettes and other vaping products . We’re closely monitoring the situation and will update our content as soon as more information is available.

Nicotine is a chemical that contains nitrogen, which is made by several types of plants, including the tobacco plant. It is also produced synthetically.

Nicotiana tabacum, the type of nicotine found in tobacco plants, comes from the nightshade family. Red peppers, eggplant, tomatoes, and potatoes are examples of the nightshade family.

While not cancer-causing or excessively harmful on its own, nicotine is heavily addictive and exposes people to the extremely harmful effects of tobacco dependency.

Smoking is the most common preventable cause of death in the United States.


Nicotiana tabacum, the type of nicotine found in tobacco plants, comes from the nightshade family

The tobacco plant is indigenous to the Americas and has been used as a medicine and stimulant for at least 2,000 years.

It is not known how tobacco first reached Europe. However, Christopher Columbus is often thought to have discovered tobacco while exploring the Americas for the first time.

The smoking of pipes and cigars spread quickly throughout the 1600s. The plant divided opinion when it was introduced to Europe. Some saw tobacco as medicinal, while others saw it as toxic and habit-forming.

The tobacco industry grew throughout the 1700s, and exploded in 1880 when a machine was first patented to mass-produce paper cigarettes. From then on, cigarettes became much easier to produce, and this saw in the dawn of the major tobacco corporations.

Tobacco was first used as an insecticide in 1763.

In 1828, Wilhelm Heinrich Posselt, a doctor, and Karl Ludwig Reinmann, a chemist, both from Germany, first isolated nicotine from the tobacco plant and identified it as a poison.

By the end of the 19th century, lawmakers had begun to realize the harmful effects of nicotine. Laws were passed banning stores from selling nicotine to minors in 26 states by the year 1890.

It was not until 1964 that the Surgeon General of the U.S. published a study linking smoking with heart disease and lung cancer. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) took until 1994 to officially recognize nicotine as a drug that produced dependency.

Even after this landmark recognition, the FDA was not granted control over nicotine regulations by the Supreme Court until June 22nd, 2009. On this day, the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act gave the FDA the power to regulate the production and advertisement of tobacco products.

Nicotine has a range of effects on the body.

The ‘nicotine effect’

Nicotine is both a sedative and a stimulant.

When a body is exposed to nicotine, the individual experiences a “kick.” This is partly caused by nicotine stimulating the adrenal glands, which results in the release of adrenaline.

This surge of adrenaline stimulates the body. There is an immediate release of glucose, as well as an increase in heart rate, breathing activity, and blood pressure.

Nicotine also makes the pancreas produce less insulin, causing a slight increase in blood sugar or glucose.

Indirectly, nicotine causes the release of dopamine in the pleasure and motivation areas of the brain. A similar effect occurs when people take heroin or cocaine. The drug user experiences a pleasurable sensation.

Dopamine is a brain chemical that affects emotions, movements, and sensations of pleasure and pain. If your brain dopamine levels rise, the feeling of contentment is higher.

Depending on the dose of nicotine taken and the individual’s nervous system arousal, nicotine can also act as a sedative.

Pharmacologic effects

When humans, mammals, and most other types of animals are exposed to nicotine, it increases their heart rate, heart muscle oxygen consumption rate, and heart stroke volume. These are known as pharmacologic effects.

Psychodynamic effects

Consuming nicotine is also linked to raised alertness, euphoria, and a sensation of being relaxed.

Concentration and memory

Studies have shown that nicotine appears to improve memory and concentration. It is thought that this is due to an increase in acetylcholine and norepinephrine. Norepinephrine also increases the sensation of wakefulness, or arousal.

Reduced anxiety

Nicotine results in increased levels of beta-endorphin, which reduces anxiety.

Nicotine is highly addictive.

People who regularly consume nicotine and then suddenly stop experience withdrawal symptoms, which may include:

  • cravings
  • a sense of emptiness
  • anxiety
  • moodiness
  • irritability
  • difficulty focusing or paying attention

The American Heart Association says that nicotine consumed from smoking tobacco is one of the hardest substances to quit. It is considered to be at least as hard as quitting heroin.

A 2013 study showed that reducing the amount of nicotine in cigarettes also brings down their level of addictiveness.

A study carried out at the National Institute on Drug Abuse found that nicotine consumption makes cocaine more addictive.

Nicotine causes a wide range of side effects in most organs and systems.

The circulation of the blood can be affected in the following ways:

  • an increased clotting tendency, leading to a risk of harmful blood clots , in which plaque forms on the artery wall
  • enlargement of the aorta

Side effects in the brain include:

  • dizziness and lightheadedness
  • irregular and disturbed sleep
  • bad dreams and nightmares
  • possible blood restriction

In the gastrointestinal system, nicotine can have the following effects:

The heart can experience the following after taking in nicotine:

  • changes in heart rate and rhythm
  • an increase in blood pressure
  • constrictions and diseases of the coronary artery
  • an increased risk of stroke

If a woman smokes while pregnant, the following risks are likely in the development of the child:

  • spasms in the lungs
  • tremors and pain in the muscles
  • increase levels of insulin and insulin resistance, contributing to the risk of diabetes
  • joint pain

Humans get their nicotine “fix” primarily through smoking tobacco, but can also obtain it by snorting snuff, chewing tobacco, or taking nicotine replacement therapies (NRTs), such as nicotine gum, lozenges, patches, and inhalators.

By far, the most popular way of consuming nicotine is by smoking cigarettes. Worldwide, over one billion people are regular tobacco smokers, according to the World Health Organization (WHO).

Approximately 16.7 percent of adult males and 13.6 percent of adult females in the U.S. are smokers. Smoking leads to over 480,000 deaths in the country per year, and over 16 million people in the U.S. are currently living with a disease caused by smoking.

More people die as a result of smoking than all deaths due to HIV, vehicle accidents, murder, suicide, alcohol abuse, and drug abuse combined.

Are e-cigarettes and vaporizers safe?

In recent years, liquid nicotine has been touted as a less risky replacement for smoking cigarettes. This can be delivered to the system in an electronic cigarette or vaporizer. These are known as electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS).

These battery-operated ‘e-cigs’ and ‘vapes’ atomize the liquid nicotine by applying heat but without the harmful, oxidative effects of burning. Liquids are available in a range of strengths and flavors.

Current evidence suggests that using liquid nicotine is a safer alternative to inhaling tobacco smoke, as nicotine in itself is not classified as carcinogenic , or cancer-causing, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer.

It may also help people that are trying to quit smoking mimic some of the addictive behaviors of cigarette use, such as raising the hand to the mouth or seeing smoke inhaled, that other types of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) cannot imitate. Liquid nicotine can help replicate these behaviors without the harmful effects of tobacco use.

Any form of nicotine is highly addictive, so e-cigarettes and vaporizers remain unsuitable for young people and those who do not already smoke. Liquid nicotine can act as a gateway to cigarettes for those not already regularly taking in nicotine.

The use of e-cigarettes rose from 1.5 percent to 16 percent among high-school students and from 0.6 percent to 5.3 percent in middle-school students between 2011 and 2015, with 81 percent of young e-cigarette users putting their use of the products down to the wide availability of flavors.

There are also other chemicals present in e-cigarette and vaporizer liquid that could be harmful, and these chemicals will be different in various brands, products, devices, and uses. Some products that are available online may also contain dangerous concentrations of nicotine.

While nicotine does not itself cause cancer, some of the other substances in liquid nicotine may well contribute to it. For example, a flavoring called diacetyl, used in some e-liquids, is also associated with severe respiratory problems seen in workers at a factory that produces microwaveable popcorn, known as “popcorn lung.”

These products have been regulated by the FDA since 2016 and, as of 2018, must bear the nicotine addictiveness warning on packaging and marketing materials. However, as a relatively new technology, the full effects of liquid nicotine are not known, and caution is advised.

The treatment of nicotine dependency is known as smoking cessation therapy. It aims to reduce the urges to consume nicotine as well as the associated risks and health problems.

Medications

Drug treatment options for nicotine dependency include :

Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT): This is available in skin patches, nasal sprays, inhalers, and solutions that can be rubbed into the gums. These replace part of the nicotine normally supplemented by smoking cigarettes and reduce the severity of urges and cravings.

While NRT does not completely prevent withdrawal symptoms, a 2008 review advises that it can double the chances of quitting smoking long-term.

No single NRT product has been demonstrated as more effective than another.

A range of NRT products are available for purchase online, including skin patches, lozenges, and gum.

Bupropion: This was used in the first instance as anti-depressant medication. However, it was then found to be useful in reducing nicotine cravings. It has a similar rate of effectiveness to NRT.

The way it works is not yet understood. It can cause insomnia as a side effect in 30 to 40 percent of patients. Bupropion carries an FDA “black-box” warning, as some anti-depressant drugs have been linked to suicidal thoughts and behavior.

Varenicline, sold as Chantix: This medication partially triggers a certain receptor in the brain that usually responds only to nicotine. It then blocks the receptor, preventing nicotine from doing the same. This reduces the urges a person experiences while quitting smoking. It may also reduce the satisfaction an individual gets from smoking, which in turn decreases the risk of a relapse.

It can cause mostly mild nausea in around 30 percent of people who pursue this course of treatment, but varenicline is normally well tolerated. It has also demonstrated a stronger effect on nicotine dependency than bupropion.

Treatments that are used when these first-line treatments are not successful, as they are more likely to cause severe side effects, include:

  • clonidine, an anti-hypertensive drug that has also shown to reduce symptoms of nicotine withdrawal but can also cause low blood pressure, dry mouth, constipation, and a slow heartbeat
  • nortryptyline, a tricyclic antidepressant whose effects can replace those of nicotine but has many of the major side effects of antidepressants and has not been given a full safety profile

Counseling and psychological support

Reviews have indicated that NRT and other medications are most effective when supported by counselling and psychiatric care.

This can range from counseling as simple as advice from a primary care physician to stop smoking to individual, telephone, and group therapy.

These interventions can help people with nicotine dependency overcome the psychological aspects of withdrawal, such as low mood and irritability, while the medications help tackle the chemical side of dependency.


How is Chronic Kidney Disease Detected?

Early detection and treatment of chronic kidney disease are the keys to keeping kidney disease from progressing to kidney failure. Some simple tests can be done to detect early kidney disease. They are:

  1. A test for protein in the urine. Albumin to Creatinine Ratio (ACR), estimates the amount of a albumin that is in your urine. An excess amount of protein in your urine may mean your kidney's filtering units have been damaged by disease. One positive result could be due to fever or heavy exercise, so your doctor will want to confirm your test over several weeks.
  2. A test for blood creatinine. Your doctor should use your results, along with your age, race, gender and other factors, to calculate your glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Your GFR tells how much kidney function you have. To access the GFR calculator, click here.

It is especially important that people who have an increased risk for chronic kidney disease have these tests. You may have an increased risk for kidney disease if you:

  • are older
  • have diabetes
  • have high blood pressure
  • have a family member who has chronic kidney disease
  • are an African American, Hispanic American, Asians and Pacific Islander or American Indian.

If you are in one of these groups or think you may have an increased risk for kidney disease, ask your doctor about getting tested.


Do body lotions enter into bloodstream of people? And how do they do it? - Biology

“My wife died suddenly 3 weeks ago and it has devastated me, but I can feel her energy around me all the time, and I love it. I don’t want her to ever leave, but I’m guessing at some point she will want to ‘move on’ and do other things. How long will she be around me?” – Jonathan

Great question, Jonathan, and one I am asked frequently.

When a person passes away they are led to the other side in various ways. They can go by themselves, they can have an angelic energy escort them, they can be picked up by a loved one who has passed before them, or they can stick around for a bit of time here on our plane.

I’ve seen people who died very suddenly and unexpectedly hang out for a bit as they really do not want to let go of their life. Often they are trying to get the attention of those who are living for a very important reason, like the case of a woman who drove her car off a bridge and died, but her two living children were still inside. She did not cross over until they were rescued and that took 2 days.

Eventually the souls cross over and have their life review, greet loved ones, understand and process their life, and get comfortable being back on the other side.

At this point, a soul can tune in to their living loved ones and try to commune and connect with them.

A soul that is recently deceased must navigate the waters, so to speak, and learn to connect with living people. It’s not an automatic skill.

The easiest way for them to commune is to move their energy close to a living person. This is what is happening when you feel their energy around you.

If they can, they will try to speak to you by sending you clairaudient thoughts. If you are clairaudient, you will hear them. If you are not, you may miss a communication.

They will also try to send you sensations and feelings in your body, so you may get chills when they are around, or you may feel the hairs on your arm stand up.

They will try to communicate with you through your dreams as that is a nice, easy way for them to reach you, but if you don’t remember your dreams, you likely won’t experience this method of communication.

A deceased person will sometimes hover very closely right after death because they want their living loved ones to know they are there, they are alright, and that they “made it” to the other side.

As grief lessens, the deceased person may not hover so close so often. That’s okay and that’s normal. But that doesn’t mean they are gone or that they won’t visit. They will check in periodically. You can reach out to them as well and they will hear you speaking to them in your mind or out loud.

When you eventually pass, you will be reunited with your previously deceased loved ones, plus all the other souls you know/knew from other lives, and you too will reach back to the living and commune with them.

So the answer to the original question is that it depends on how long the deceased person wants to stick around and hover. It can be hours, days, months or years. Eventually the communication will come at greater intervals, but please know that you are never disconnected from your loved ones. They are just a thought away.


End-of-Life Care for People Who Have Cancer

What does end-of-life care mean for people who have cancer?

When a cancer patient’s health care team determines that the cancer can no longer be controlled, medical testing and cancer treatment often stop. But the person’s care continues, with an emphasis on improving their quality of life and that of their loved ones, and making them comfortable for the following weeks or months.

Medicines and treatments people receive at the end of life can control pain and other symptoms, such as constipation, nausea, and shortness of breath. Some people remain at home while receiving these treatments, whereas others enter a hospital or other facility. Either way, services are available to help patients and their families with the medical, psychological, social, and spiritual issues around dying. Hospice programs are the most comprehensive and coordinated providers of these services.

The period at the end of life is different for each person. The signs and symptoms people have vary as their illness continues, and each person has unique needs for information and support. Questions and concerns that family members have about the end of life should be discussed with each other, as well as with the health care team, as they arise.

Communication about end-of-life care and decision making during the final months of a person’s life are very important. Research has shown that if a person who has advanced cancer discusses his or her options for care with a doctor early on, that person’s level of stress decreases and their ability to cope with illness increases. Studies also show that patients prefer an open and honest conversation with their doctor about choices for end-of-life care early in the course of their disease, and are more satisfied when they have this talk.

Experts strongly encourage patients to complete advance directives, which are documents stating a person’s wishes for care. They also designate who the patient chooses as the decision-maker for their care when they are unable to decide. It’s important for people with cancer to have these decisions made before they become too sick to make them. However, if a person does become too sick before they have completed an advance directive, it’s helpful for family caregivers to know what type of care their loved one would want to receive. More information about advance directives can be found below in the Related Resources section of this fact sheet.

How do doctors know how long a person will continue to live?

Patients and their family members often want to know how long a person who has cancer will continue to live. It’s normal to want to be prepared for the future. But predicting how long someone will continue to live is a hard question to answer. A number of factors, including the type of cancer, its location, and whether the patient has other illnesses, can affect what will happen.

Although doctors may be able to estimate the amount of time someone will continue to live based on what they know about that person, they might be hesitant to do so. They may be concerned about over- or under-estimating the person’s remaining life span. They also might be fearful of giving false hope or destroying a person's will to live.

When should someone call for professional help if they’re caring for a person who has cancer at home?

People caring for patients at home should ask them if they’re comfortable, if they feel any pain, and if they’re having any other physical problems.

There may be times when the caregiver needs assistance from the patient's health care team. A caregiver can contact the patient's doctor or nurse for help in any of the following situations:

  • The patient is in pain that is not relieved by the prescribed dose of pain medication.
  • The patient is experiencing onset of new symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, increasing confusion, anxiety or restlessness.
  • The patient is experiencing symptoms that were previously well controlled.
  • The patient shows discomfort, such as by grimacing or moaning.
  • The patient is having trouble breathing and seems upset.
  • The patient is unable to urinate or empty the bowels.
  • The patient has fallen.
  • The patient is very depressed or talking about suicide.
  • The caregiver has difficulty giving medicines to the patient.
  • The caregiver is overwhelmed by caring for the patient, is too sad, or is afraid to be with the patient.
  • The caregiver doesn’t know how to handle a certain situation.

Keep in mind that palliative care experts can be called upon by the patient’s physician at any point in the person’s illness to help with these issues. They are increasingly available not only in the hospital, but also in the outpatient setting.

When is the right time to use hospice care?

Many people believe that hospice care is only appropriate in the last days or weeks of life. Yet Medicare states that it can be used as much as 6 months before death is anticipated. And those who have lost loved ones say that they wish they had called in hospice care sooner.

Research has shown that patients and families who use hospice services report a higher quality of life than those who don’t. Hospice care offers many helpful services, including medical care, counseling, and respite care. People usually qualify for hospice when their doctor signs a statement saying that patients with their type and stage of disease, on average, aren’t likely to survive beyond 6 months. More information about hospice can be found below in the Related Resources section of this fact sheet.

What are some ways to provide emotional support to a person who is living with and dying of cancer?

Everyone has different needs, but some worries are common to most dying patients. Two of these concerns are fear of abandonment and fear of being a burden. People who are dying also have concerns about loss of dignity and loss of control. Some ways caregivers can provide comfort to a person with these worries are listed below:

  • Keep the person company. Talk, watch movies, read, or just be with him or her.
  • Allow the person to express fears and concerns about dying, such as leaving family and friends behind. Be prepared to listen.
  • Be willing to reminisce about the person's life.
  • Avoid withholding difficult information. Most patients prefer to be included in discussions about issues that concern them.
  • Reassure the patient that you will honor advance directives, such as living wills.
  • Ask if there is anything you can do.
  • Respect the person's need for privacy.
  • Support the person’s spirituality. Let them talk about what has meaning for them, pray with them if they’d like, and arrange visits by spiritual leaders and church members, if appropriate. Keep objects that are meaningful to the person close at hand.

What other issues should caregivers be aware of?

It’s just as important for caregivers to take care of their own health at this time. Family caregivers are affected by their loved one’s health more than they realize. Taking care of a sick person often causes physical and emotional fatigue, stress, depression, and anxiety. Because of this, it’s important for caregivers to take care of their own body, mind, and spirit. Helping themselves will give them more energy, help them cope with stress, and cause them to be better caregivers as a result.

It’s also helpful if caregivers ask for support from friends and family members. Such help is important to help lessen the many tasks involved in taking care of a loved one who is sick or dying.

What are some topics patients and family members can talk about?

For many people, it’s hard to know what to say to someone at the end of life. It’s normal to want to be upbeat and positive, rather than talk about death. And yet, it’s important to be realistic about how sick the person may be. Caregivers can encourage their loved one without giving false hope. Although it can be a time for grieving and accepting loss, the end of life can also be a time for looking for meaning and rethinking what’s important.

During this period, many people tend to look back and reflect on life, legacies created, and loved ones who will be left behind. Some questions to explore with a patient at the end of life are the following:

  • What are the happiest and saddest times we have shared together?
  • What are the defining or most important moments of our life together?
  • What are we most proud of?
  • What have we taught each other?

Patients with serious, life-threatening illness have stated that being positive or adding humor remains an important outlet for them. Even at this challenging moment, laughter may still be the best medicine.

How should caregivers talk to their children about advanced cancer?

Children deserve to be told the truth about a family member’s prognosis so they can be prepared if their loved one dies. It’s important to answer all of their questions gently and honestly so they don’t imagine things that are worse than reality. They need to be reassured that they will be taken care of no matter what happens.

Caregivers need to be prepared to answer tough questions. To do this, they should know what their own feelings and thoughts are about the situation. They need to be able to show children how to hope for the best while preparing for and accepting that their loved one may die.

How does cancer cause death?

Every patient is different, and the way cancer causes death varies. The process can depend on the type of cancer, where it is in the body, and how fast it’s growing.

For some people, the cancer can’t be controlled anymore and spreads to healthy tissues and organs. Cancer cells take up the needed space and nutrients that the healthy organs would use. As a result, the healthy organs can no longer function. For other people, complications from treatment can cause death.

During the final stages of cancer, problems may occur in several parts of the body.

  • Digestive system: If cancer is in the digestive system (e.g., stomach, pancreas, or colon), food or waste may not be able to pass through, causing bloating, nausea, or vomiting. If the cancer prevents food from being digested or absorbed, patients can also become malnourished.
  • Lungs: If too little healthy lung tissue is left, or if cancer blocks off part of the lung, the person may have trouble breathing and getting enough oxygen. Or, if the lung collapses, it may become infected, which may be too hard for someone with advanced cancer to fight.
  • Bones: If cancer is in the bones, too much calcium may go into the bloodstream, which can cause unconsciousness and death. Bones with tumors may also break and not heal.
  • Liver: The liver removes toxins from the blood, helps digest food, and converts food into substances needed to live. If there isn’t enough healthy liver tissue, the body’s chemical balance is upset. The person may eventually go into a coma.
  • Bone marrow: When cancer is in the bone marrow, the body can’t make enough healthy blood cells. A lack of red blood cells will cause anemia, and the body won’t have enough oxygen in the blood. A low white blood cell count will make it hard to fight infection. And a drop in platelets will prevent the blood from clotting, making it hard to control abnormal bleeding.
  • Brain: A large tumor in the brain may cause memory problems, balance problems, bleeding in the brain, or loss of function in another body part, which may eventually lead to a coma.

In some cases, the exact cause can’t be pinpointed and patients simply decline slowly, becoming weaker and weaker until they succumb to the cancer.

Again, every patient is different and all processes have different stages and rates in which they advance. And some conditions have treatments that can help slow the process or make the patient more comfortable. It’s very important to keep having conversations with the patient’s health care team.

What are the signs that death is approaching, and what can the caregiver do to make the person comfortable during this time?

Certain signs and symptoms can help a caregiver anticipate when death is near. They are described below, along with suggestions for managing them. However, each person’s experience at the end of life is different. What may happen to one person may not happen for another. Also, the presence of one or more of these symptoms doesn’t necessarily mean that the patient is close to death. A member of the health care team can give family members and caregivers more information about what to expect.

Withdrawal from friends and family:

  • People often focus inward during the last weeks of life. This doesn’t necessarily mean that patients are angry or depressed or that they don’t love their caregivers. It could be caused by decreased oxygen to the brain, decreased blood flow, and/or mental preparation for dying.
  • They may lose interest in things they used to enjoy, such as favorite TV shows, friends, or pets.
  • Caregivers can let the patient know they are there for support. The person may be aware and able to hear, even if they are unable to respond. Experts advise that giving them permission to “let go” may be helpful. If they do feel like talking, they may want to reminisce about joys and sorrows, or tie up loose ends.
  • People may have drowsiness, increased sleep, intermittent sleep, or confusion when they first wake up.
  • Worries or concerns may keep patients up at night. Caregivers can ask them if they would like to sit in the room with them while they fall asleep.
  • Patients may sleep more and more as time passes. Caregivers should continue to talk to them, even if they’re unconscious, for the patient may still hear them.
  • It may become harder to control pain as the cancer gets worse. It’s important to provide pain medication regularly. Caregivers should ask to see a palliative care doctor or a pain specialist for advice on the correct medicines and doses. It may be helpful to explore other pain control methods such as massage and relaxation techniques.
  • Weakness and fatigue will increase over time. The patient may have good days and bad days, so they may need more help with daily personal care and getting around.
  • Caregivers can help patients save energy for the things that are most important to them.
  • As the body naturally shuts down, the person with cancer will often need and want less food. The loss of appetite is caused by the body’s need to conserve energy and its decreasing ability to use food and fluids properly.
  • Patients should be allowed to choose whether and when to eat or drink. Caregivers can offer small amounts of the foods the patient enjoys. Since chewing takes energy, they may prefer milkshakes, ice cream, or pudding. If the patient doesn’t have trouble with swallowing, offer sips of fluids and use a flexible straw if they can’t sit up. If a person can no longer swallow, offer ice chips. Keep their lips moist with lip balm and their mouth clean with a soft, damp cloth.
  • Near the end of life, people often have episodes of confusion or waking dreams. They may get confused about time, place, and the identity of loved ones. Caregivers can gently remind patients where they are and who is with them. They should be calm and reassuring. But if the patient is agitated, they should not attempt to restrain them. Let the health care providers know if significant agitation occurs, as there are treatments available to help control or reverse it.
  • Sometimes patients report seeing or speaking with loved ones who have died. They may talk about going on a trip, seeing lights, butterflies, or other symbols of reality we can’t see. As long as these things aren’t disturbing to the patient, caregivers can ask them to say more. They can let them share their visions and dreams, not trying to talk them out of what they believe they see.
  • There may be a loss of bladder or bowel control due to the muscles relaxing in the pelvis. Caregivers should continue to provide clean, dry bedding and gentle personal care. They can place disposable pads on the bed under the patient and remove them when soiled. Also, due to a slowing of kidney function and/or decreased fluid intake, there may be a decrease in the amount of urine. It may be dark and smell strong.
  • Breathing patterns may become slower or faster, in cycles. The patient may not notice, but caregivers should let the doctor know if they are worried about the changes. There may be rattling or gurgling sounds that are caused by saliva and fluids collecting in the throat and upper airways. Although this can be very disturbing for caregivers, at this stage the patient is generally not experiencing any distress. Breathing may be easier if a person’s body is turned to the side and pillows are placed behind the back and beneath the head. Caregivers can also ask the health care team about using a humidifier or external source of oxygen to make it easier for the patient to breathe, if the patient is short of breath.
  • Skin may become bluish in color and feel cool as blood flow slows down. This is not painful or uncomfortable for the patient. Caregivers should avoid warming the patient with electric blankets or heating pads, which can cause burns. However, they may keep the patient covered with a light blanket.

What are the signs that the person has died?

  • The person is no longer breathing and doesn’t have a pulse.
  • Their eyes don’t move or blink, and the pupils are dilated (enlarged). The eyelids may be slightly open.
  • The jaw is relaxed and the mouth is slightly open.
  • The body releases the bowel and bladder contents.
  • The person doesn’t respond to being touched or spoken to.
  • The person’s skin is very pale and cool to the touch.

What needs to be done after the person has died?

After the person has died, there is no need to hurry with arrangements. Family members and caregivers may wish to sit with the body, to talk, or to pray. When the family is ready, the following steps can be taken.


Do body lotions enter into bloodstream of people? And how do they do it? - Biology


Epsom Salts
copyright Kd. 2002 last updated 8.25.05

Dr Rosemary Waring found that most people with autism conditions have a deficiency in a key detoxification pathway. The pathway involves using sulfur in the form of sulfate (known as sulfation). The enzyme involved is phenol sulfur-transferase (PST), but the problem is thought to hinge on an inadequate supply of usable sulfate ions, not the metabolic enzyme itself.

Dr Waring found that most children on the autism spectrum are very low in sulfate and may be as low as 15 percent of the amount in neurologically typical people. People with low or no ability to convert compounds to sulfate have problems handling environmental chemicals, some medications, and even some chemicals produced within the body. They include people with other conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and chemical sensitivities.

The PST sulfation pathway is necessary for the breakdown and removal of certain toxins in the body. This includes the processing of a type of chemical called a phenol. Phenols are a regular and necessary part of life. All foods contain some phenolic compounds. However, some foods have a much higher content than others do. If the sulfation pathway is not functioning well, a person may not be able to process out the phenolic compounds as fast as they consume them. There is a cumulative effect. When the phenols start backing up in the system, it can cause a myriad of negative reactions. Symptoms of phenol intolerance include night waking, night sweats, irritability, eczema, and other skin conditions. The symptoms of phenol intolerance and yeast may be very similar because they both involve the body trying to deal with toxins.

This detoxification pathway processes other phenolic compounds including salicylates (salicylates are a subset of phenols), artificial food colorings, artificial flavorings, and some preservatives. Besides requiring PST, research has found the salicylates further suppress the activity of any PST enzyme present, making matters worse. Food dyes also have been shown to inhibit the PST enzyme.

First Part
You can unclog this ‘bottleneck’ in one of two ways. One is reducing the amount of phenols and toxins entering the body. This is the basis of the Feingold Program or diet. The Feingold Program removes the hard-to-process artificial colorings, flavorings, and three preservatives. It also removes the most problematic of the salicylate foods at the beginning of the program. Later in the program, you may be able to add these salicylate foods back after testing them one at a time. The foods targeted by the Feingold Program and their effects on hyperactivity in children have been extensively studied. Eliminating these chemicals has been effectively helping many children with all sorts of behavior problems for many years, although the reasons why are just now beginning to be understood.
Feingold/Failsafe Programs

There is an abundance of studies in the references that specifically show that eliminating these types of chemicals significantly improve neurological problems in children.
www.feingold.org
note: look in the Research section at the top of the page at the above link. This site contains information on the possible symptoms from various food and environmental chemicals also.

A literature review by Kidd (2000) concludes that although the exact cause of attention deficit conditions is unknown, the current consensus is that genetics plays a role. Other major contributors include adverse responses to food additives, intolerances to foods, sensitivities to environmental chemicals, nutrient deficiencies, and exposures to neurodevelopmental toxins such as heavy metals. This sounds exactly like the factors contributing to autism, migraines, sensory integration issues and other related conditions.

Second Part
The second method of enhancing the detoxification process is to supply more sulfate. This increases the amount of toxins processed out. Sulfate ions may not be absorbed well from the gut, so simply giving more sulfur directly by swallowing supplements may not produce satisfactory results. Some people have seen improvements by supplementing with the sulfur-containing amino acids cysteine and taurine, or MSM (methysulfonylmethane), or by using one of the many commercially available MSM creams. However, others have not found this tolerable. This may be because their body is unable to convert the sulfur to the needed sulfate form.

Most people do see improvement with Epsom salts because the form of sulfur in the Epsom salts is already sulfate and readily available to the body.

What are Epsom salts and how do they work?

Epsom salts are magnesium sulfate. Salts are just molecules that form because the parts have opposite electrical charges that bind together. Magnesium has a positive charge. Sulfate has a negative charge, and performs all sorts of unique biological functions. The two elements dissociate in solution (English translation: break apart and separate in liquid). Epsom salts are available at most local grocers or health food stores, or inexpensively in bulk at agricultural supply stores.

The magnesium and sulfate in the salts are absorbed into the body through the skin. Because the sulfur is already in the sulfate form, it does not need to be converted like other forms of sulfur do. Sulfate is thought to circulate in the body up to about nine hours. Any Epsom salts left on the skin may continue to be absorbed as long as it is still on the skin, offering continuous ‘timed-released’ input into the bloodstream – like medications given through skin patches. Many people on a typical ‘modern’ processed diet are very deficient in magnesium as well, which Epsom salts also supply in a highly available form. Main effects of insufficient magnesium are hyperness, irritability, anxiety, and muscle twitching or spasms. So the salts may provide two-way assistance.
see Magnesium

Here are several methods for giving Epsom salts. The ratio is not exact, just what seems to get the salts dissolved and on the skin.

Epsom salt baths – Most people use about one to two cups per tub. Dissolve the salts in hot water first and then fill the tub to about waist deep, as warm as possible. The amount of salts you may find works best will depend on the individual tolerance, the temperature of the water, and the size of the tub. The warmer the water and larger the tub, the more salts will dissolve. If you see negative reactions, such as irritability or hyperactivity, then decrease the amount of salts. You may need to start with as little as one tablespoon of salts, and work up gradually. Epsom salts baths are very calming for most people. This works well just before bedtime. Most guides say to soak for about 20 minutes or more. It is okay to let the salts dry on the skin. You may notice a dry clear-white powder. If it is too itchy or irritating, just rinse it off. If the skin feels too dry, use lotion or oils to moisturize. Diarrhea or loose stools may result if children drink the bath water.

Spray – Mix one part salts and one part water (add more water if the salts are not dissolved) and put in a spray-squirt bottle. Mist the person’s chest and/or back and let it dry on the skin. This method works well in the summer.

Footbath – Mix one part salts to two parts water (or more so the salts dissolve) and let the person soak their feet in it. My boys would soak their feet about 30 minutes while they did reading or homework.

Homemade lotion – This is my favorite at the moment. Cheap and easy.

Recipe 1 from Karen D: Heat some Epsom salts with a little water to dissolve them. I put about one teaspoon of water in three tablespoons of salts and microwave for a minute or so. Add more water if necessary. Then mix this into around four ounces of any lotion or cream you like. I have used suntan lotion, handcream, cocoa butter, body lotion, aloe vera cream, whatever I find that is on sale or inexpensive without the chemicals I am trying to avoid. This seems to work better if the cream or lotion is water-based rather than oil-based. Good buys are at the local grocer in the lotion section. Apply to skin anywhere as often as desired. Some new commercially prepared Epsom salt creams are available but can be very expensive and may contain chemicals that are not tolerated.

Recipe 2 from Rubby: Well – my recipe for the Epsom salt cream is quite unscientific. I don't really measure my ingredients – I just add a bit of everything until I have the consistency I like.

Ingredients:
Hot water – approximately 50ml
Epsom Salt – approximately 4-5 tablespoonfuls (I keep on adding the salt to the water for as long as it dissolves – usually 5 tblsp)
White Petroleum Jelly – 5-6 tblsp (or more ??)
Natural Cocoa Butter Cream – 2-3 tblsp

I start by adding the salt into the hot water and boiling it for a few minures (make sure the salt is dissolved), then I add the Petroleum jelly and mix it all with a hand mixer (one you would use to whipp cream) once I get a white, creamy mixture, I add some cocoa butter cream and mix again.And that's it. I get approximately 250 – 350 ml cream. I use it only once a day, on days when we don't do a bath. I use it to massage my daughter's back, her chest and her legs (with a focus on her feet – she loves it). Somethimes, I add in a few drops of Lavander Oil.

The cost – minimal. I buy my local pharmacy brand (in Toronto – Shoppers Drug Mart – "Life") Petroleum Jelly (500 gr.) $3 (CAD), Coca Butter Cream (400 ml) $3 and Epsom Salt (1kg) $3.5 (CAD). I think that the two creams I use will make at least 3 Epsom salt mixtures, which means that my cream costs me approximately $2-3 (CAD). And it lasts me a long time – even though I try to put on my daughter as much as possible.

Epsom salt oil – Neither of my sons nor I liked the salty film left on the skin after a bath (felt itchy). I mixed some coconut oil in with the salts and water. Actually, it is more oil than water. Three tablespoons water plus four tablespoons salts plus 12 tablespoons coconut oil. The coconut oil is good for the skin anyway and it seems to counter the drying effect of the salts. I found that just mixing the salts and oil did not dissolve the salts, so I needed to add some water. I apply this liberally on the skin and it soaks in plus leaves the skin smooth and soft. Adjust the quantity of salts to your liking.

Sponge – A solution of one part salts to four parts water works well. Dampen a sponge in the mixture and apply to any part of the body.

Poultice or skin patch – You can mix some Epsom salts and whatever kind of lotion the person can tolerate into a paste. Put this paste on a large bandaid and apply to the skin. The salts will soak into the skin.

High phenolic foods, chemical additives, and enzymes

Phenols and salicylates do not occur in the same intensity in all foods. Those parents on the Feingold diet point out some studies rank foods by the quantity of phenols present in a food as very low, low, medium, high, and very high. These are not absolute values or correspond with exact toxicities or reactions to the foods. Rather it is included only as a guide. The Feingold literature also notes that salicylates are cumulative in the body, and may only be processed out at a certain rate. So, if you consume more than the body can process out, you get a reaction.

Regarding the other chemicals, even small amounts of coloring or other chemicals may cause a reaction, which indicates some sort of pharmacological effect as well. For people who are sensitive to phenols, a strong broad-spectrum enzyme product may help somewhat with phenolic foods. Several parents found they could give low quantities of some phenols, but needed to keep track of the total phenol load for the day, or week. Enzymes may be helping some by breaking down a wide array of foods, or by releasing more sulfur, magnesium, and molybdenum which are helpful in processing phenols.

In April 2002, No-Fenol became available. It is a very unique enzyme mixture just for assisting with the digestion of highly phenolic foods, including fruits, chemicals, and artificial additives. No-Fenol performed very well in months of preliminary tests with phenolic-sensitive children. Since its release, it continues to give excellent results with these foods.

The exact reason No-Fenol helps is not precisely understood. The phenol metabolism, sulfation, and detoxification issues are rather complex. It may not be due so much to the presence of phenols as to the specific structure of these phenols. The research literature indicates that some phenolic compounds are modified by the addition of carbohydrate groups to their structures, which may inhibit their crossing into cells and being metabolized properly. A current hypothesis for why No-Fenol helps may be because the enzymes in this product are able to remove certain carbohydrate groups from the phenols, or otherwise modify their structure, thus allowing normal processing by the detoxification pathways.
see The No-Fenol File

Since fruit-derived enzymes may contribute some phenols into the system, products without the fruit-derived proteases (bromelain, papain, actinidin) may help those concerned about phenols. Enzymedica is one of several companies that makes enzyme products without fruit-derived enzymes or fillers.

Many parents giving these enzymes have said how wonderful it is to be able to give even a low amount of phenols again. Just being able to add foods containing a little bit of fruit greatly expands their child’s menu. Enzymes may help protect against hidden sources of the unwanted phenol compounds.

Fruits and vegetables are very beneficial in maintaining good health. Flavonoids, beta-carotenes, and other phenolic compounds have been specifically identified as important in preventing an number of illnesses, such as various cancers, and have an important role as effective antioxidants.

Sometimes a food may appear to give a 'phenolic' or unwanted reaction. It may be because the food actually contains a phenolic-based preservative. At times this turns out to be the case with dairy. Vitamin A palmitate is often added to low-fat or skim milks. The palmitate may be preserved with a phenolic compound. When people switch to a whole milk or milk product without this preservative (or artifical colorings/flavorings) they no longer have a problem with dairy. The same may be true of commercial breads. Often the shortening or pan sprays used in baked goods contain artificial preservatives that are the cause of the problem and not the grains in themselves. This may be the same with other foods as well.
see Feingold Program
see Dairy - the Multi-faceted Substance

Which enzyme products to not contain fruit-derived enzymes?

Enzymes in general can be great! However, a particular person may not tolerate certain fillers, added herbs, particular enzyme ingredient, or even a particular blend.

The fruit-derived enzymes are perfectly fine enzymes which are well-studied and work great for many people. But it is also know that the can be a problem for those that are phenol sensitive, salicylate sensitive, or have detoxification problems. If you are not sensitive to fruit-derived enzymes, the fruit-derived enzymes are not a problem.

If you are having difficulting tolerating enzymes, check to see if it contains fruit-derived enzymes. If so, try a product without the fruit-derived enzymes. not many out there but there are some good choices. Personally, I like Lacto as a starter enzyme, particularly if you have problems with dairy or serious gut injury. But just about any product without the fruit-derived enzymes may work. just start at a lower dose and gradually increase the amount to higher doses over the course of 4-5 days. After a little gut healing, higher levels of proteases aren't a problem and you can switch around to other products, or add more enzymes in, if you want.

Here is a list of what the products without fruit-derived enzymes I are aware of. Please note that even if a product does not have fruity-derived enzymes, you still need to check to see if it fits your needs or purpose. If anyone knows of other products without fruit-derived enzymes, please let me know and I'll add it to this reference list:

Enzymedica (the Thera-blends do not contain fruit-derived enzymes):


The chart below shows the percentage of teens who use inhalants.

Swipe left or right to scroll.

Monitoring the Future Study: Trends in Prevalence of Inhalants for 8th Graders, 10th Graders, and 12th Graders 2020 (in percent)*
Drug Time Period 8th Graders 10th Graders 12th Graders
Inhalants Lifetime [12.6] 7.4 [3.8]
Past Year 6.1 2.9 1.1
Past Month 2.9 1.2 0.7

* Data in brackets indicate statistically significant change from the previous year. Previous MTF Data

Explore teen substance use trends over time, by grade and substance with an interactive chart featuring Monitoring the Future data from 2016 to present.

For more statistics on teen drug use, see NIDA’s Monitoring the Future study.


Ways to Use Marijuana

You can use pot in a variety of ways. Smoking usually offers the quickest way to feel its effects:

  • Rolled cigarettes
  • Small handheld pipes
  • Water pipes, called a bong
  • A cigar that has been hollowed out and refilled with marijuana, called a blunt
  • Sticky resins drawn from the cannabis plant. Resins often are loaded with much higher amounts of THC than regular marijuana

You also can mix pot into brownies, cookies, candy, tea, and other foods. Eating and drinking the drug delay the high because it has to travel through your digestive system before the THC gets into your bloodstream. So it may take 30 minutes to 2 hours before you feel anything. But edibles give you a high that lasts much longer -- up to 8 hours -- than if you smoke or vape weed.

Sources

American Cancer Society: “Marijuana and Cancer.”

National Health Service (UK): “Cannabis: the facts.”

Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research: “An Update on Safety and Side Effects of Cannabidiol: A Review of Clinical Data and Relevant Animal Studies.”

CBD.org: “The Care By Design product family.”

CDC: “Marijuana and Public Health.”

Colorado Department of Public Health: “FAQ -- Health Effects of Marijuana.”

Consumer Reports: “What Is CBD? What to Know Now About This Cannabis Product.”

Epilepsy Currents: “Cannabidiol: Promise and Pitfalls.”

European Journal of Pain: “Transdermal cannabidiol reduces inflammation and pain-related behaviours in a rat model of arthritis.”

Government of Canada Department of Public Health: “Health effects of cannabis.”

Harm Reduction Journal: “Cannabis and tobacco smoke are not equally carcinogenic.”

Journal of Epilepsy Research: “Cannabinoids in the Treatment of Epilepsy: Hard Evidence at Last?”

Journal of Experimental Medicine: “Cannabinoids suppress inflammatory and neuropathic pain by targeting α3 glycine receptors.”

Mayo Clinic: “Marijuana,” “Medical marijuana.”

National Academies Press: “The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids: The Current State of Evidence and Recommendations for Research.”

National Cancer Institute: “Cannabis and Cannabinoids (PDQ®)–Health Professional Version.”

National Institute on Drug Abuse: “Marijuana,” “What is marijuana?” “How does marijuana work?” “Secondhand Marijuana Smoke?” “What are marijuana's effects on lung health?” “What are marijuana's long-term effects on the brain?” “Researching Marijuana for Therapeutic Purposes: The Potential Promise of Cannabidiol (CBD).”

Nemours Foundation: “Marijuana.”

New England Journal of Medicine: “Adverse Health Effects of Marijuana Use.”

Michele Baggio, University of Connecticut Alberto Chong, Georgia State University: “Recreational Marijuana Laws and Junk Food Consumption: Evidence Using Border Analysis and Retail Sales Data.”

University of Mississippi: “Marijuana Research.”

FDA: “FDA approves first drug comprised of an active ingredient derived from marijuana to treat rare, severe forms of epilepsy.”

World Health Organization: “Cannabis.”

Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research: “Simultaneous vs. concurrent use of alcohol and cannabis in the National Alcohol Survey.”

Annual Review of Clinical Psychology: “Medical Marijuana and Marijuana Legalization.”


Watch the video: Κοιτάξτε την ώρα! Αποκατάσταση μετά από εγκεφαλικό επεισόδιο, ξεκινώντας από τις πρώτες ώρες (December 2022).